## Wavelet Filter Banks in Perceptual Audio Coding

●7 commentsThis thesis studies the application of the wavelet filter bank (WFB) in perceptual audio coding by providing brief overviews of perceptual coding, psychoacoustics, wavelet theory, and existing wavelet coding algorithms. Furthermore, it describes the poor frequency localization property of the WFB and explores one filter design method, in particular, for improving channel separation between the wavelet bands. A wavelet audio coder has also been developed by the author to test the new filters. Preliminary tests indicate that the new filters provide some improvement over other wavelet filters when coding audio signals that are stationary-like and contain only a few harmonic components, and similar results for other types of audio signals that contain many spectral and temporal components. It has been found that the WFB provides a flexible decomposition scheme through the choice of the tree structure and basis filter, but at the cost of poor localization properties. This flexibility can be a benefit in the context of audio coding but the poor localization properties represent a drawback. Determining ways to fully utilize this flexibility, while minimizing the effects of poor time-frequency localization, is an area that is still very much open for research.

## Real-time Motion Picture Restoration

Through age or misuse, motion picture films can develop damage in the form of dirt or scratches which detract from the quality of the film. Removal of these artifacts is a worthwhile process as it makes the films more visually attractive and extends the life of the material. In this thesis, various methods for detecting and concealing the effects of film damage are described. Appropriate algorithms are selected for implementation of a system, based on a TMS320C80 video processor, which can remove the effects of film defects using digital processing. The restoration process operates in real-time at video frame rates (30 frames per second). Details of the software implementation of this system are presented along with results from processing damaged film material. The effects of damage are significantly reduced after processing.

## Least Squares and Adaptive Multirate Filtering

This thesis addresses the problem of estimating a random process from two observed signals sampled at different rates. The case where the low–rate observation has a higher signal–to– noise ratio than the high–rate observation is addressed. Both adaptive and non–adaptive filtering techniques are explored. For the non–adaptive case, a multirate version of the Wiener–Hopf optimal filter is used for estimation. Three forms of the filter are described. It is shown that using both observations with this filter achieves a lower mean–squared error than using either sequence alone. Furthermore, the amount of training data to solve for the filter weights is comparable to that needed when using either sequence alone. For the adaptive case, a multirate version of the LMS adaptive algorithm is developed. Both narrowband and broadband interference are removed using the algorithm in an adaptive noise cancellation scheme. The ability to remove interference at the high rate using observations taken at the low rate without the high–rate observations is demonstrated.

## A DSP-Based Computational Engine For a Brain-Machine Interface

●1 commentThe fields of neurobiology and electrical engineering have come together to pursue an integrated Brain-Machine Interface (BMI). Signal processing methods are used to find mapping algorithms between motor cortex neural firing rate and hand position. This cognitive extension could help patients with quadriplegia regain some independence using a thought-controlled robot arm. Current signal processing methods to achieve realtime neural-to-motor translation involve large, multi-processor systems to produce motor control parameters. Eventually, software running in a portable signal processing system is needed to allow for the patient to have the BMI in a backpack or attached to a wheelchair. This thesis presents a DSP-Based Computational Engine for a Brain-Machine Interface. The development of a DSP Board based on the Texas Instruments TMS320VC33 DSP will be presented, along with implementations of two digital filters and their training methods: 1) FIR trained with Normalized Least Mean Square Adaptive Filter (NLMS) and 2) Recurrent Multi-Layer Perceptron (RMLP) trained with Real-Time Recurrent Learning (RTRL). The requirements of the DSP Board, component selection and integration, and control software are discussed. The DSP implementations of the digital filters are presented, along with performance and timing analysis in real data collected from an Owl Monkey at Duke University. The weights of the FIR-NLMS filter converged similarly on the DSP as they did in MATLAB. Likewise, the weights of the RMLP-RTRL filter converged similarly on the DSP as they did using the Backpropagation Through Time method in NeuroSolutions. The custom DSP Board and two digital algorithms implemented in this thesis create a starting point for an integrated, portable, real-time signal processing solution for a Brain-Machine Interface.

## Orthogonal Adaptive Digital Filters with Applications to Acoustic System Identification

●2 commentsThe Transform-Domain LMS Algorithm (Narayan, 1983) is studied in the context of an acoustic system identification problem. The power estimator in this two-stage digital filter is shown to affect the achievable rates and depths of convergence significantly. Preferred values for the two tracking parameters, $\beta$ and $\mu,$ are determined. Dynamic Step-size Initialization is proposed to improve early convergence by accelerating the rate at which true power measurements replace (arbitrary) initial values. Later, linear estimators are shown to be sub-optimal, particularly where the spectral distribution of the reference changes rapidly. A simple non-linear Peak Window Power Estimator which eliminates these problems is described. It will be shown to improve the tracking rates and misadjustment simultaneously. The benefits of these methods are demonstrated using FIR sequences representative of typical acoustic environments and using recordings from a commercial telephone set. The proposed structures surpass theexisting algorithms consistently under all circumstances tested.

## Real-Time DSP Implementation of an Acoustic-Echo-Canceller with a Delay-Sum Beamformer

●14 commentsTraditional telephony uses only a single receiver for speech acquisition. If the speaker is standing away from the telephone, the signal will be weak and there will be interference sources from room reverberation. In addition, there is acoustic echo coming from the loudspeaker, which further interferes with the signal of interest. This research investigated the combination of common solutions to these problems. Electronic beamforming steered an array of microphones within software to enhance the signal power. Echo cancellation removed the echo coming from the loudspeaker. In combination these processing techniques can greatly enhance user experience.

## Evaluation of Image Warping Algorithms for Implementation in FPGA

The target of this master thesis is to evaluate the Image Warping technique and propose a possible design for an implementation in FPGA. The Image Warping is widely used in the image processing for image correction and rectification. A DSP is a usual choice for implantation of the image processing algorithms, but to decrease a cost of the target system it was proposed to use an FPGA for implementation. In this work a different Image Warping methods was evaluated in terms of performance, produced image quality, complexity and design size. Also, considering that it is not only Image Warping algorithm which will be implemented on the target system, it was important to estimate a possible memory bandwidth used by the proposed design. The evaluation was done by implemented a C-model of the proposed design with a finite datapath to simulate hardware implementation as close as possible.

## Signal Processing Requirements for WiMAX (802.16e) Base Station

802.16e provides specifications for non line of sight, mobile wireless communications in the frequency range of 2-6 GHz. It is well implemented by using OFDMA as its physical layer scheme. The OFDM symbol time (sT) is to be selected depending on the channel conditions, available bandwidth and, simulations provide a means of selecting right values of sTin different channel conditions. Additionally it has been shown that certain values of sT outperform others in all conditions, thus invalidating their use. Moreover, a solution proposed by INTEL is also analyzed. One of the major requirements of OFDM is high synchronization. Detecting the timing offset of a new mobile user, entering the network, which is not time aligned using cross-correlation and ‘auto-correlation’ in time domain and cross-correlation in frequency domain at the base station has been simulated. Results point that the processing load can be significantly reduced by using frequency domain correlation of the received data or by using ‘auto-correlation’ followed by cross-correlation on localized data. The use of adaptive antenna system in 802.16e improves the system performance, where beamforming is implemented in the direction of desired user. Capon’s method and MUSIC method have been simulated to compute the direction of arrival for OFDMA uplink. A new user, while in the ranging process, transmits data with unknown time offset and unknown direction. The thesis describes the procedure to find the two unknown one after another.

## Least Squares and Adaptive Multirate Filtering

This thesis addresses the problem of estimating a random process from two observed signals sampled at different rates. The case where the low–rate observation has a higher signal–to– noise ratio than the high–rate observation is addressed. Both adaptive and non–adaptive filtering techniques are explored. For the non–adaptive case, a multirate version of the Wiener–Hopf optimal filter is used for estimation. Three forms of the filter are described. It is shown that using both observations with this filter achieves a lower mean–squared error than using either sequence alone. Furthermore, the amount of training data to solve for the filter weights is comparable to that needed when using either sequence alone. For the adaptive case, a multirate version of the LMS adaptive algorithm is developed. Both narrowband and broadband interference are removed using the algorithm in an adaptive noise cancellation scheme. The ability to remove interference at the high rate using observations taken at the low rate without the high–rate observations is demonstrated.

## Active Noise Control of a Forest Machine Cabin

Today, a high noise level is considered a problem in many working environments. The main reason is that it contributes to stress and fatigue. Traditional methods using passive noise control is only practicable for high frequencies. As a complement to passive noise control, active noise control (ANC) can be used to reduce low frequency noise. The main idea of ANC is to use destructive interference of waves to cancel disturbing noises. The purpose of this thesis is to design and implement an ANC system in the driver's cabin of a Valmet 890 forest machine. The engine boom is one of the most disturbing noises and therefore the main subjective for the ANC system to suppress. The ANC system is implemented on a Texas Instrument DSP development starter kit. Different FxLMS algorithms are evaluated with feedback and feedforward configurations. The results indicate that an ANC system significantly reduces the sound pressure level (SPL) in the cabin. Best performance of the evaluated systems is achieved for the feedforward FxLMS system. For a commonly used engine speed of 1500 rpm, the SPL is reduced with 17 dB. The results show fast enough convergence and global suppression of low frequency noise.

## A Two-Level Reconfigurable Cell Array for Digital Signal Processing

●3 commentsReconfigurable hardware has become an attractive option for implementing digital signal processing, especially in systems that require both high performance and flexibility. This thesis presents a novel two-level reconfigurable architecture targeted toward systems with these requirements. The architecture supports a large orthogonal design space whereby designers can customize the word length, amount of parallelism, number of functional units, and functional unit connectivity to meet the needs of the application. On the upper level, algorithms are mapped onto an array of 4-bit cells and a hierarchical interconnection fabric. The interconnection structure contains a mesh of 4-bit busses for local data transfer, as well as an H-tree for communicating results between functional units. On the lower level, each cell contains a small matrix of elements that collectively implement all necessary operations. The matrix of elements has only two configurations: one optimized for mathematical functions such as multiply-accumulates, and the other optimized for memory operations. The system also contains pipeline latches to maximize clock rate and throughput. Circuit simulations indicate that the architecture achieves a clock frequency of 200 MHz in a modest 0.25-μm CMOS technology. An initial prototype of the reconfigurable cell has been fabricated in 0.5-μm CMOS and tested for functionality. The estimated execution time for a 16-bit, 256-point Fast Fourier Transform shows a speedup ranging from 1.6 to 14 compared to contemporary digital signal processors.

## Wavelet Filter Banks in Perceptual Audio Coding

●7 commentsThis thesis studies the application of the wavelet filter bank (WFB) in perceptual audio coding by providing brief overviews of perceptual coding, psychoacoustics, wavelet theory, and existing wavelet coding algorithms. Furthermore, it describes the poor frequency localization property of the WFB and explores one filter design method, in particular, for improving channel separation between the wavelet bands. A wavelet audio coder has also been developed by the author to test the new filters. Preliminary tests indicate that the new filters provide some improvement over other wavelet filters when coding audio signals that are stationary-like and contain only a few harmonic components, and similar results for other types of audio signals that contain many spectral and temporal components. It has been found that the WFB provides a flexible decomposition scheme through the choice of the tree structure and basis filter, but at the cost of poor localization properties. This flexibility can be a benefit in the context of audio coding but the poor localization properties represent a drawback. Determining ways to fully utilize this flexibility, while minimizing the effects of poor time-frequency localization, is an area that is still very much open for research.