### PFE to Real, Second-Order Sections

When all coefficients of and are real (implying that is the transfer function of a real filter), it will always happen that the complex one-pole filters will occur in complex conjugate pairs. Let denote any one-pole section in the PFE of Eq. (6.7). Then if is complex and describes a real filter, we will also find somewhere among the terms in the one-pole expansion. These two terms can be paired to form a real second-order section as follows:  Expressing the pole in polar form as , and the residue as , the last expression above can be rewritten as The use of polar-form coefficients is discussed further in the section on two-pole filtersB.1.3). Expanding a transfer function into a sum of second-order terms with real coefficients gives us the filter coefficients for a parallel bank of real second-order filter sections. (Of course, each real pole can be implemented in its own real one-pole section in parallel with the other sections.) In view of the foregoing, we may conclude that every real filter with can be implemented as a parallel bank of biquads.7.6 However, the full generality of a biquad section (two poles and two zeros) is not needed because the PFE requires only one zero per second-order term. To see why we must stipulate in Eq. (6.7), consider the sum of two first-order terms by direct calculation: (7.9)

Notice that the numerator order, viewed as a polynomial in , is one less than the denominator order. In the same way, it is easily shown by mathematical induction that the sum of one-pole terms can produce a numerator order of at most (while the denominator order is if there are no pole-zero cancellations). Following terminology used for analog filters, we call the case a strictly proper transfer function.7.7 Thus, every strictly proper transfer function (with distinct poles) can be implemented using a parallel bank of two-pole, one-zero filter sections.
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