Figure G.2 gives the standard direct-form-II structure for a second-order IIR filter. Unlike Fig.G.1, it includes a direct path from the input to the output. The filter coefficients are all given directly by the transfer function, Eq.(G.13).
This form can be converted directly to state-space form by carefully observing all paths from the input and state variables to the output. For example, reaches the output through gain 2 on the right, but also via gain on the left and above. Therefore, its contribution to the output is , as obtained in the DF-II realization with direct-path pulled out shown in Fig.G.1. The state variable reaches the output with gain , again as we obtained before. Finally, it must also be observed that the gain of the direct path from input to output is .
Matlab Direct-Form to State-Space Conversion
Controllability and Observability