### Summary of Wave Digital Elements

From Eq.(F.1), we have that the general reflectance of impedance with respect to the reference impedance in the wave variable formulation is given by

 (F.13)

In WDF construction, the free constant in the bilinear transform is taken to be . Thus we obtain . When is first order, it is possible to choose the reference impedance so as to eliminate the delay-free path in the digital reflectance , and so its value depends on the actual physical element being digitized.

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A Physical Derivation of Wave Digital Elements