#### Tonehole Filter Design

The tone-hole reflectance and transmittance must be converted to discrete-time form for implementation in a digital waveguide model. Figure 9.49 plots the responses of second-order discrete-time filters designed to approximate the continuous-time magnitude and phase characteristics of the reflectances for closed and open toneholes, as carried out in [403,406]. These filter designs assumed a tonehole of radius mm, minimum tonehole height mm, tonehole radius of curvature mm, and air column radius mm. Since the measurements of Keefe do not extend to 5 kHz, the continuous-time responses in the figures are extrapolated above this limit. Correspondingly, the filter designs were weighted to produce best results below 5 kHz.

The closed-hole filter design was carried out using weighted
equation-error minimization [428, p. 47], *i.e.*, by minimizing
, where is the weighting
function,
is the desired frequency response, denotes
discrete-time radian frequency, and the designed filter response is
. Note that both phase and magnitude are
matched by equation-error minimization, and this error criterion is used
extensively in the field of system identification [288]
due to its ability to design optimal IIR filters via quadratic
minimization. In the spirit of the well-known Steiglitz-McBride algorithm
[287], equation-error minimization can be iterated,
setting the weighting function at iteration to the inverse of the
inherent weighting
of the previous iteration, *i.e.*,
. However, for this study, the weighting was used only to
increase accuracy at low frequencies relative to high frequencies.
Weighted equation-error minimization is implemented in the matlab function
`invfreqz()` (§8.6.4).

The open-hole discrete-time filter was designed using Kopec's method [297], [428, p. 46] in conjunction with weighted equation-error minimization. Kopec's method is based on linear prediction:

- Given a desired complex frequency response , compute an allpole model using linear prediction
- Compute the error spectrum .
- Compute an allpole model
for
by
minimizing

*ratio error*

*upper spectral envelope*of the desired frequency-response. Since the first step of Kopec's method captures the upper spectral envelope, the ``nulls'' and ``valleys'' are largely ``saved'' for the next step which computes zeros. When computing the zeros, the spectral ``dips'' become ``peaks,'' thereby receiving more weight under the ratio-error norm. Thus, in Kopec's method, the poles model the upper spectral envelope, while the zeros model the lower spectral envelope. To apply Kopec's method to the design of an open-tonehole filter, a one-pole model was first fit to the continuous-time response, Subsequently, the inverse error spectrum, was modeled with a two-pole digital filter, The discrete-time approximation to was then given by

The reasonably close match in both phase and magnitude by second-order filters indicates that there is in fact only one important tonehole resonance and/or anti-resonance within the audio band, and that the measured frequency responses can be modeled with very high audio accuracy using only second-order filters.

Figure 9.50 plots the reflection function calculated for a six-hole flute bore, as described in [240].

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The Tonehole as a Two-Port Loaded Junction

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The Clarinet Tonehole as a Two-Port Junction