## Forums Search for: Quantization

## equalizer error bias

inHi, I have a channel with significant ISI with a 3 level (1,0,-1) transmission. The transmitted data and the receiver data after quantization...

Hi, I have a channel with significant ISI with a 3 level (1,0,-1) transmission. The transmitted data and the receiver data after quantization have zero mean. The problem is that the error output of the equalizer after convergence is not zero mean even (it's slightly positive) though its variance is very low (around 22dB below signal power). It's been pointed to me that it should be zero mean...

## Joint papers

inDear colleagues, my lab works in following areas: 1. discretization (mapping continued functions on discrete finite series) 2....

Dear colleagues, my lab works in following areas: 1. discretization (mapping continued functions on discrete finite series) 2. quantization 3. fast algorithms 4. RTOS. Lately we have got interesting results. But as you see I have problem in English. It embarrasses publishing of scientific data. Could anybody help us to form the paper in English as a co-author? If you have an interes...

## Quantized least squares estimator and errors...

inI'll present my problem with an example. Let's assume I've an ADC sampling a signal and providing a mx1 column of samples that can be...

I'll present my problem with an example. Let's assume I've an ADC sampling a signal and providing a mx1 column of samples that can be represented as b + w being b the vector of the exact values of the signal and w the zero-mean error due to thermal noise and quantization error. The acquired signal can be modelled as A * x = b + w and I want to estimate the parameters in the vec...

## Re: Position and velocity from accelerometer

inJerry Avins writes: > There must be more here than I can see. To measure velocity from > acceleration, integration is necessary. Even...

Jerry Avins writes: > There must be more here than I can see. To measure velocity from > acceleration, integration is necessary. Even digital integrators > drift. (How is left as an exercise for the reader. Answer on request.) How? I'm assuming that quantization isn't the issue here since by definition the input to a digital integrator is already digital. And I can se

## Newbie ? about FFT Bins and Resolution BW

inIf i understand this correctly, the inverse of the sample time will give us the frequency resolution, which is the same as the resolution...

If i understand this correctly, the inverse of the sample time will give us the frequency resolution, which is the same as the resolution bandwidth on a spectrum analyzer, right? So if I'm going into an ADC, and i want the receive KTB to stay 14dB or so above the thermal and quantization noise of the ADC, then i can sample at 100MHz, and the band width can be at the Nyquist, or 50MHz. So ...

## Choice of digital signal processor

Hi, I have a problem finding the right DSP for my purposes. The Situation is that I have a dspace System for analyzing and influencing the...

Hi, I have a problem finding the right DSP for my purposes. The Situation is that I have a dspace System for analyzing and influencing the Power Quality of the current Grid(harmonics). The System does its job but the results are improvable. Due to reasons of quantization Noise and Antialias I need a System with ADC that have 24 bits resolution and at least 100 khz sample rate. I need 4 channels...

## Re: Theoretically Highest Quality of PCM Audio

In article 20031121215550.28390.00000721@mb-m14.aol.com, BobGardner at bobgardner@aol.com wrote on 11/21/2003 21:55: > > > > If I am given...

In article 20031121215550.28390.00000721@mb-m14.aol.com, BobGardner at bobgardner@aol.com wrote on 11/21/2003 21:55: > > > > If I am given a 16-bit fixed-point number of uniform quantization, I > > can surely say that the maximum theoritic dynamic range I can get is > > 96.329 dB > > Minor quibble... 96 dB is 6 dB per bit for 16 bits...the max signal is really > +-32767 or +-15 bits, righ

## Pseudo-random questions about a professional audio application

inHello all, I've been toying with the idea of putting together a DSP box with some audio I/Os and am looking to get the highest quality audio...

Hello all, I've been toying with the idea of putting together a DSP box with some audio I/Os and am looking to get the highest quality audio fed into my DSP as possible. The engineering side of me wants to start by getting the skinny on 'the best' sampling techniques, ADCs, and pre-DSP stages to minimize (or ideally eliminate) quantization noise. However, the business side of me says I ...

## Calculating derivatives of measurement results

Hi, I have an application where I need to compute derivatives of measurement results in near-real time. However, noise and quantization...

Hi, I have an application where I need to compute derivatives of measurement results in near-real time. However, noise and quantization error of the measurements should affect the result as little as possible. What would be the best approach to this? I've tried searching on the net but haven't found much info. I guess it is basically a question of combining a [-1 1]/dt filter wi...

## JavaScript JPEG Implementation Help

inHello, For a bit of fun I am currently writing an implementation of a monochrome baseline DCT JPEG encoder in JavaScript. I am currently using...

Hello, For a bit of fun I am currently writing an implementation of a monochrome baseline DCT JPEG encoder in JavaScript. I am currently using the IJG DCT implementation and the standard quantization and Huffman tables described in ITU-T.81. However the resultant images don't appear correct, I feel that this is because the information I've found relating to entropy coding is unclear and varies....

## Re: Understanding bit widths requirements in Sigma Delta Modulators

On May 22, 9:10 pm, Tim Wescott wrote: > somdeb wrote: > > I am trying to understand how bit-width requirements at different > > ...

On May 22, 9:10 pm, Tim Wescott wrote: > somdeb wrote: > > I am trying to understand how bit-width requirements at different > > integrators can be estimated... couldn't find much in literature. ... > > As a guess, I'd say it has to be big enough so that, at a minimum, the > quantization noise from your integrator is insignificant compared to the > noise you expect

## [cross-post] dither generator on fpga

inHi there, we are measuring from a quadrature encoder the raw sine and cosine and need to extract the angular position [1]. The position is...

Hi there, we are measuring from a quadrature encoder the raw sine and cosine and need to extract the angular position [1]. The position is then fedback to a PID which drives a motor. We've been told that dither may be efficient in removing spurious harmonics due to quantization errors which may affect the control loop only few days before pcb production, therefore the only possibilit...

## Delta Sigma modulation noise problem~! Help

inhi: We all know that DSM is good because it's abaility to push Q noise to higher frequency band. My question is does DSM only work for Q...

hi: We all know that DSM is good because it's abaility to push Q noise to higher frequency band. My question is does DSM only work for Q noise? What about if the data already corrupted by noise? therefore would DSM work if the noise is the combination of background and quantization noise.? I have done some matlab coding(first order) on it and it works a bit but i dont know if it's ...

## Delta Sigma modulation noise problem~! Help

hi: We all know that DSM is good because it's abaility to push Q noise to higher frequency band. My question is does DSM only work for Q...

hi: We all know that DSM is good because it's abaility to push Q noise to higher frequency band. My question is does DSM only work for Q noise? What about if the data already corrupted by noise? therefore would DSM work if the noise is the combination of background and quantization noise.? I have done some matlab coding(first order) on it and it works a bit but i dont know if it's ...

## Re: Theoretically Highest Quality of PCM Audio

BobGardner wrote: > > > > > If I am given a 16-bit fixed-point number of uniform quantization, I > > can surely say that the maximum...

BobGardner wrote: > > > > > If I am given a 16-bit fixed-point number of uniform quantization, I > > can surely say that the maximum theoritic dynamic range I can get is > > 96.329 dB > > Minor quibble... 96 dB is 6 dB per bit for 16 bits...the max signal is really > +-32767 or +-15 bits, right? so its 90dB.... Ah, but the largest signal swing is {32767,-32768} and the smallest is {

## Re: Software PLL (SPLL)

Mark wrote: > A software PLL is based on an NCO and an NCO unlike a VCO has a minimum > step size so it can only achieve a number of...

Mark wrote: > A software PLL is based on an NCO and an NCO unlike a VCO has a minimum > step size so it can only achieve a number of discrete frequencies, i.e. > the output frequency is quantized. Why do you say this? An NCO is, of course based on some digital number representation; but if you use IEEE doubles, the quantization error of the phase is much smaller than the thermal noise o

## mid-tread v mid-rise quantization?

inHello all, I am engaged in writing up various topics a propos sound and music computing in UK schools, in the context of the relatively new...

Hello all, I am engaged in writing up various topics a propos sound and music computing in UK schools, in the context of the relatively new Computer Science curriculum. Included in the curriculum (14-16 GCSE, and 16-18 A-Level) under the core topic of "data representation" is the sub-topic of audio sampling, including a basic understanding of the choice of sample resolution and the ac...

## IIR fixed-point implementation

inHI everyone, I was wondering if anyone can recommend me good books or papers on fixed-point IIR implementation strategies on FPGAs or CPUs....

HI everyone, I was wondering if anyone can recommend me good books or papers on fixed-point IIR implementation strategies on FPGAs or CPUs. Especially regarding fc versus Fs and coefficient quantization. I have issues with an order-1 DC-removal filter with Fs = 100 MHz and Fcut = 250 kHz. Basically, I need lots of precision in the intermediate calculations which impact the number of bits f...

## Oversampling and quantization...

inHopefully some of you can point me to the solution of this problem. If I oversample a signal, I quantize it and then I reduce the sampling...

Hopefully some of you can point me to the solution of this problem. If I oversample a signal, I quantize it and then I reduce the sampling rate with a decimator by a factor M, I can improve the QSNR by a factor of log2(M). Nice and easy. But what if I lower the sampling rate using a fitting technique? I mean if I know how the signal is done and I retrieve some parameters out of it using a f...

## Levinson Durbin / Reflection coefficients

inHi ! I want to learn more about different representations of the LP coefficients (ie reflection coefficients, spectral frequency line, and...

Hi ! I want to learn more about different representations of the LP coefficients (ie reflection coefficients, spectral frequency line, and so on). How to transform between those representations and what they actually mean. I'm searching for an easy representation which is robust against quantization and also allows the signal to be losslessly coded. (It should be easy to calculate the...