Automated Accident Detection in Intersections Via Digital Audio Signal Processing

Navaneethakrishnan Balraj

The aim of this thesis is to design a system for automated accident detection in intersections. The input to the system is a three-second audio signal. The system can be operated in two modes: two-class and multi-class. The output of the two-class system is a label of “crash” or “non-crash”. In the multi-class system, the output is the label of “crash” or various non-crash incidents including “pile drive”, “brake”, and “normal-traffic” sounds. The system designed has three main steps in processing the input audio signal. They are: feature extraction, feature optimization and classification. Five different methods of feature extraction are investigated and compared; they are based on the discrete wavelet transform, fast Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, real cepstrum transform and Mel frequency cepstral transform. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to optimize the features obtained in the feature extraction stage by linearly combining the features using different weights. Three types of statistical classifiers are investigated and compared: the nearest neighbor, nearest mean, and maximum likelihood methods. Data collected from Jackson, MS and Starkville, MS and the crash signals obtained from Texas Transportation Institute crash test facility are used to train and test the designed system. The results showed that the wavelet based feature extraction method with LDA and maximum likelihood classifier is the optimum design. This wavelet-based system is computationally inexpensive compared to other methods. The system produced classification accuracies of 95% to 100% when the input signal has a signal-to-noise-ratio of at least 0 decibels. These results show that the system is capable of effectively classifying “crash” or “non-crash” on a given input audio signal.