# Update To: A Wide-Notch Comb Filter

This blog presents alternatives to the wide-notch comb filter described in Reference [1]. That comb filter, which for notational reasons I now call a ** 2-RRS wide notch comb filter**, is shown in Figure 1. I use the "2-RRS" moniker because the comb filter uses two recursive running sum (RRS) networks.

The *z*-domain transfer function of the **2-RRS wide-notch comb filter**, *H*_{2-RRS}(*z*), is:

Encouraged by hirnprinz's Nov. 26th Comment to my Reference [1] blog, I began to experiment with various modifications to the above ** 2-RRS wide-notch comb filter**.

The most noteworthy thing I learned from my experimentation is shown in Figure 2. If we cascade a single recursive running sum (RRS) network to the Figure 1 comb filter, as shown in Figure 2(a), we place frequency magnitude nulls right smack in the middle of the original Figure 1 comb filter's notches. The frequency magnitude response of the Figure 2(a) ** Enhanced wide-notch comb filter** is shown as the solid curve in Figure 2(b).

So, at the expense of an additional storage register, a *D*-length delay line, and two additions per output sample, we have *significantly* increased the notch attenuation depths.

The *z*-domain transfer function of the Figure 2(a) ** Enhanced wide-notch comb filter**,

*H*

_{EWNC}(

*z*), is the product of

*H*

_{2-RRS}(

*z*) and the transfer function of an RRS network; that is:

This comb filter is linear-phase and its group delay is:

* Enhanced wide**-notch comb filter*** group delay = 3(D-1)/2 samples,**

which is always an integer number of samples when *D* is an odd integer.

In MATLAB code we define the notch width control parameter *C* and the value of integer *D*, and use the following to define *H*_{EWNC}(*z*)'s 'B' numerator coefficients and its 'A' denominator coefficients:

B = [1, zeros(1,D-2), -C, (2*C-3), -C, zeros(1,D-3), C, (3-2*C), C, zeros(1,D-2), -1];

A = [1, -3, 3, -1];

__A Unity-Gain Enhanced Wide-Notch Comb Filter__

The DC gain (gain at zero Hz) of the Figure 2(a) ** Enhanced wide-notch comb filter** is:

* H*_{EWNC} DC gain = *D*^{3}—*DC*. (3)

Appendix B shows how to implement a unity-gain ** Enhanced wide-notch comb filter**.

__Other Variations of the 2-RRS Wide-Notch Comb Filter__

Fortunately I was able to avoid "Death by Algebra" and successfully investigate other variations of the original ** 2-RRS wide-notch comb filter**.

Those other comb filters, having wider comb notches than the ** 2-RRS wide-notch comb filter**, are described in Appendix A.

__Conclusion__

I've described four alternatives to the wide-notch comb filter presented in Reference [1]; most notably the deep-notch ** Enhanced wide-notch comb filter** shown in Figure 2(a). (Snippets of MATLAB code were provided.) In addition, Appendix B shows how to implement a unity passband gain version of the

**.**

*Enhanced wide-notch comb filter*__References__

[1] R. Lyons, "*A Wide-Notch Comb Filter*", dsprelated.com *Blogs*, Nov. 24, 2019, Available online:

https://www.dsprelated.com/showarticle/1308.php

__Appendix A: Variations of the Wide-Notch Comb Filter__

This appendix describes three additional variations to the Figure 1 original ** 2-RRS wide-notch comb filter**. Here we present the block diagrams, the

*z*-domain transfer functions, and MATLAB code needed to model the three alternative wide-notch comb filters.

__3-RRS Wide-Notch Comb Filter__

Another comb filter variation I investigated is the linear-phase ** 3-RRS wide-notch comb filter** shown in Figure A-1.

** **

The *z*-domain transfer functions of the ** 3-RRS wide-notch comb filter** is:

Note that this filter is only stable when *D* is an odd integer. The group delay of the ** 3-RRS wide-notch comb filter** is:

** 3-RRS wide-notch comb filter** group delay = 3(

*D*-1)/2 samples.

In MATLAB code we define the notch width control parameter *C* and the value of integer *D*, and use the following to define *H*_{3-RRS}(*z*)'s 'B' numerator coefficients and its 'A' denominator coefficients:

B = [1, zeros(1,D-1), -3, zeros(1,(D-5)/2), -C, 3*C, ...

-3*C, C, zeros(1,(D-5)/2), 3, zeros(1,D-1), -1];

A = [1, -3, 3, -1];

__4-RRS Wide-Notch Comb Filter__

The next comb filter variation I explored is the linear-phase ** 4-RRS wide-notch comb filter** shown in Figure A-2.

** **

The *z*-domain transfer functions of the ** 4-RRS wide-notch comb filter** is:

The group delay of the ** 4-RRS wide-notch comb filter** is:

** 4-RRS wide-notch comb filter** group delay = 2(

*D*-1) samples.

In MATLAB code we define the notch width control parameter *C* and the value of integer *D*, and use the following to define *H*_{4-RRS}(*z*)'s 'B' numerator coefficients and its 'A' denominator coefficients:

B = [1, zeros(1,D-1), -4, zeros(1,D-3), -C, 4*C, 6*(1-C), 4*C, ...

-C, zeros(1,D-3), -4, zeros(1,D-1), 1];

A = [1, -4, 6, -4, 1];

__Dual 2-RRS Wide-Notch Comb Filter__

The last comb filter variation is the** linear-phase** ** Dual 2-RRS wide-notch comb filter** formed by cascading a pair of

**as shown in Figure A-3.**

*2-RRS wide-notch comb filters*The *z*-domain transfer function of the ** Dual 2-RRS wide-notch comb filter** is a messy algebraic expression. To model this filter in software we can obtain its rational polynomial transfer function,

*H*

_{D2-RRS}(

*z*), by convolving Eq. (1) with itself as:

The group delay of the ** Dual wide-notch-notch comb filter** is:

** Dual 2-RRS wide-notch comb filter** group delay = 2(

*D*-1) samples.

In MATLAB code we define the notch width control parameter *C* and the value of integer *D*, and use the following to define *H*_{D2-RRS}(*z*)'s 'B' numerator coefficients and its 'A' denominator coefficients:

B = [1, zeros(1,D-2), -C, -2*(1-C), -C, zeros(1,D-2), 1];

A = [1, -2, 1];

B = conv(B, B);

A = conv(A, A);

Figure A-4 shows a comparison of the above three comb filters' frequency magnitude responses versus the magnitude response of the original **2-RRS wide-notch comb filter** when *D* = 9 and *C* = 0.05.

__Appendix B: Unity Gain Enhanced Wide-Notch Comb Filter __

The simplest method to implement a unity gain (at zero Hz) ** Enhanced wide-notch comb filter** is shown in Figure B-1(a). There we merely scaled the comb filter's output sequence by the reciprocal of the filter's passband gain of

*D*

^{3}—

*DC*.

** **

In fixed-point implementations, to reduce the necessary word width of the various accumulators (adders) and two of the *z*^{‑D} delay lines, the distributed scaling methods in Figures B-1(b) and B-1(c) can be used. Equation (B-1) gives the transfer function for all the comb filters in Figure B-1:

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