for all sample indices . By modulo indexing, is the same as . The operator reverses the order of samples through of a sequence, leaving sample 0 alone, as shown in Fig.7.1a. Thanks to modulo indexing, it can also be viewed as ``flipping'' the sequence about the time 0, as shown in Fig.7.1b. The interpretation of Fig.7.1b is usually the one we want, and the operator is usually thought of as ``time reversal'' when applied to a signal or ``frequency reversal'' when applied to a spectrum .