Wireless communications systems are evolving to be more diverse in use and more ubiquitous in nature. It is of fundamental importance that we consume the resources available in such systems, i.e., bandwidth and energy, to preserve room for more users and to preserve longevity. Signal processing can greatly help us achieve this. In this thesis we consider improving the utility of resources available in wireless communications systems. The basic obstacle for most wireless communications systems is the multipath channel that causes intersymbol interference. Channel estimation is a crucial step for recovering the transmitted symbols. Moreover, as more devices are equipped with wireless capabilities, the bandwidth becomes scarce and it is important to allow more than one device or more than one user to use the same frequency range or the same channel. However, this introduces multiuser interference, which is again eliminated only if the channel is known. Furthermore, most wireless systems are battery powered, at least at the transmitter end. Hence it is crucial that energy consumption is minimized to preserve the longevity of the system. The contribution of this thesis is three fold: (i) We propose novel bandwidth efficient blind channel estimation algorithms for single input multiple output systems, and for multiuser OFDM systems. The former exploits cyclostationarity inherent in communications signals. The latter exploits the structure introduced to the transmitted signal via precoding. We consider design of such precoders by optimizing performance metrics such as the bit error rate and signal to interference plus noise ratio. (ii) In the multiuser systems case, we propose a novel cooperative OFDM system and show that, when users face significantly different channel conditions, cooperation can improve the performance of all the cooperating users. (iii) We consider energy efficient training based system estimation in large MIMO systems. The goal there is to minimize energy consumption both in transmission of training symbols and in performing computations. We show that by using a divide and conquer strategy in selecting the active set of transmitters and receivers, it is possible to minimize energy consumption without degrading the accuracy of the channel estimate.
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