A Quadrature Signals Tutorial: Complex, But Not Complicated

Rick Lyons
5 comments

Quadrature signals are based on the notion of complex numbers and perhaps no other topic causes more heartache for newcomers to DSP than these numbers and their strange terminology of j operator, complex, imaginary, real, and orthogonal. If you're a little unsure of the physical meaning of complex numbers and the j = √-1 operator, don't feel bad because you're in good company. Why even Karl Gauss, one the world's greatest mathematicians, called the j operator the "shadow of shadows". Here we'll shine some light on that shadow so you'll never have to call the Quadrature Signal Psychic Hotline for help. Quadrature signal processing is used in many fields of science and engineering, and quadrature signals are necessary to describe the processing and implementation that takes place in modern digital communications systems. In this tutorial we'll review the fundamentals of complex numbers and get comfortable with how they're used to represent quadrature signals. Next we examine the notion of negative frequency as it relates to quadrature signal algebraic notation, and learn to speak the language of quadrature processing. In addition, we'll use three-dimensional time and frequency-domain plots to give some physical meaning to quadrature signals. This tutorial concludes with a brief look at how a quadrature signal can be generated by means of quadrature-sampling.



Comments:

a.s.
Said:
Sir, It's a real delight to read your articles. It's commendable that you make it so easy and intuitive for someone to read and follow the topic.

I would like to write a quote here:
“When something can be read without effort, great effort has gone into its writing.”
― Enrique Jardiel Poncela
3 years ago
+1
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cacafone
Said:
Has anyone come across these 2 filters? They give quadrature outputs at all treqs:
HI = (1 - z^-2)/2
HQ =1/z
2 years ago
0
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ssrana03
Said:
What are the issues in using quadrature sampling to reduce the sampling frequency ?
2 years ago
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greenoaktree
Said:
Very Good !
Explained IQ signal very clear!
8 months ago
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jlljt
Said:
iq
6 months ago
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