#### Beta Parameters

It is customary in the wave digital filter literature to define the*beta parameters*as

where are the port impedances (attached element reference impedances). In terms of the beta parameters, the force-wave series adaptor performs the following computations:

However, we normally employ a mixture of parallel and series adaptors, while keeping a force-wave simulation. Since , we obtain, after a small amount of algebra, the following recipe for the series force-wave adaptor:

We see that we have multiplies and additions as in the parallel-adaptor case. However, we again have from Eq.(F.26) that

*dependent port*.

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Reflection Coefficient, Series Case

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Reflection Free Port