#### Beta Parameters

It is customary in the wave digital filter literature to define the beta parameters as

 (F.26)

where are the port impedances (attached element reference impedances). In terms of the beta parameters, the force-wave series adaptor performs the following computations:
 (F.27) (F.28)

However, we normally employ a mixture of parallel and series adaptors, while keeping a force-wave simulation. Since , we obtain, after a small amount of algebra, the following recipe for the series force-wave adaptor:

 (F.29) (F.30)

We see that we have multiplies and additions as in the parallel-adaptor case. However, we again have from Eq.(F.26) that

so that we may implement one beta parameter as 2 minus the sum of the rest, thus eliminating a multiplication by creating a dependent port.

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