### Symmetry of the DTFT for Real Signals

Most (if not all) of the signals we deal with in practice are real signals. Here we note some spectral symmetries associated with real signals.#### DTFT of Real Signals

The previous section established that the spectrum of every real signal satisfies(3.16) |

*I.e.*,

(3.17) |

In other terms, if a signal is real, then its spectrum is

*Hermitian*(``conjugate symmetric''). Hermitian spectra have the following equivalent characterizations:

- The real part is even, while the imaginary part is odd:

- The magnitude is even, while the phase is odd:

#### Real Even (or Odd) Signals

If a signal is*even*in addition to being real, then its DTFT is also real and even. This follows immediately from the Hermitian symmetry of real signals, and the fact that the DTFT of any even signal is real:

*I.e.*,

*odd*and real, then its DTFT is odd and

*purely imaginary*. This follows from Hermitian symmetry for real signals, and the fact that the DTFT of any odd signal is imaginary.

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Shift Theorem for the DTFT

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Time Reversal