### Two Dual Interpretations of the STFT

The STFT can be viewed as a function of either frame-time or bin-frequency . We will develop both points of view in this book.At each frame time , the STFT can be regarded as producing a

*Fourier transform*centered around that time. As advances, a sequence of spectral transforms is obtained. This is depicted graphically in Fig.9.1, and it forms the basis of the

*overlap-add method*for Fourier analysis, modification, and resynthesis [9]. It is also the basis for

*transform coders*[16,284]. In an exact Fourier duality, each bin of the STFT can be regarded as a sample of the complex signal at the output of a lowpass filter whose input is . As discussed in §9.1.2, this signal is obtained from by

*frequency-shifting*it so that frequency is translated down to

**0**Hz. For each value of , the time-domain signal , for , is the output of the th ``filter bank channel,'' for . In this ``filter bank'' interpretation, the hop size can be interpreted as the

*downsampling factor*applied to each bin-filter output, and the analysis window is seen as the

*impulse response of the anti-aliasing filter*used prior to downsampling. The window transform is also the frequency response of each channel filter (translated to dc). This point of view is depicted graphically in Fig.9.2 and elaborated further in Chapter 9.

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The STFT as a Time-Frequency Distribution

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Summary of STFT Computation Using FFTs