### Alternate PFE Methods

Another method for finding the pole residues is to write down the general form of the PFE, obtain a common denominator, expand the numerator terms to obtain a single polynomial, and equate like powers of . This gives a linear system of equations in unknowns , .Yet another method for finding residues is by means of Taylor series expansions of the numerator and denominator about each pole , using l'Hôpital's rule.. Finally, one can alternatively construct a

*state space realization*of a strictly proper transfer function (using,

*e.g.*,

`tf2ss`in matlab) and then

*diagonalize*it via a

*similarity transformation*. (See Appendix G for an introduction to state-space models and diagonalizing them via similarity transformations.) The transfer function of the diagonalized state-space model is trivially obtained as a sum of one-pole terms--

*i.e.*, the PFE. In other words, diagonalizing a state-space filter realization implicitly performs a partial fraction expansion of the filter's transfer function. When the poles are distinct, the state-space model can be diagonalized; when there are repeated poles, it can be block-diagonalized instead, as discussed further in §G.10.

**Next Section:**

Repeated Poles

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FIR Part of a PFE