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Another way to define the ideal waveguide transformer is to ask for a two-port element that joins two waveguide sections of differing wave impedance in such a way that signal power is preserved and no scattering occurs. From Ohm's Law for traveling waves (Eq.$ \,$(6.6)), and from the definition of power wavesC.7.5), we see that to bridge an impedance discontinuity between $ R_{i-1}$ and $ R_i$ with no power change and no scattering requires the relations

$\displaystyle \frac{[f^{{+}}_i]^2}{R_i} = \frac{[f^{{+}}_{i-1}]^2}{R_{i-1}}, \qquad\qquad
\frac{[f^{{-}}_i]^2}{R_i} = \frac{[f^{{-}}_{i-1}]^2}{R_{i-1}}.

Therefore, the junction equations for a transformer can be chosen as

$\displaystyle f^{{+}}_i= g_i\, f^{{+}}_{i-1}\qquad\qquad f^{{-}}_{i-1}= g_i^{-1}\, f^{{-}}_i \protect$ (C.125)


$\displaystyle g_i \isdef \pm\sqrt{\frac{R_i}{R_{i-1}}} \protect$ (C.126)

Choosing the negative square root for $ g_i^{-1}$ gives a gyrator [35]. Gyrators are often used in electronic circuits to replace inductors with capacitors. The gyrator can be interpreted as a transformer in cascade with a dualizer [433]. A dualizer converts one from wave variable type (such as force) to the other (such as velocity) in the waveguide. The dualizer is readily derived from Ohm's Law for traveling waves:
f^{{+}}\eqsp Rv^{+}, \qquad
f^{{-}}\eqsp -Rv^{-}\\ [5pt]
...i\eqsp Rv^{+}_{i-1}, \qquad
v^{-}_{i-1} \eqsp -R^{-1} f^{{-}}_i
In this case, velocity waves in section $ i-1$ are converted to force waves in section $ i$, and vice versa (all at wave impedance $ R$). The wave impedance can be changed as well by cascading a transformer with the dualizer, which changes $ R$ to $ R\sqrt{R_i/R}=\sqrt{RR_i}$ (where we assume $ R=R_{i-1}$). Finally, the velocity waves in section $ i-1$ can be scaled to equal their corresponding force waves by introducing a transformer $ g=\sqrt{1/R}$ on the left, which then coincides Eq.$ \,$(C.126) (but with a minus sign in the second equation).
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