Piano Hammer ModelingThe previous section treated an ideal point-mass striking an ideal string. This can be considered a simplified piano-hammer model. The model can be improved by adding a damped spring to the point-mass, as shown in Fig.9.22 (cf. Fig.9.12).
Thus, the scattering filters in the digital waveguide model are second order (biquads), while for the string struck by a mass (§9.3.1) we had first-order scattering filters. This is expected because we added another energy-storage element (a spring). The impedance formulation of Eq.(9.19) assumes all elements are linear and time-invariant (LTI), but in practice one can normally modulate element values as a function of time and/or state-variables and obtain realistic results for low-order elements. For this we must maintain filter-coefficient formulas that are explicit functions of physical state and/or time. For best results, state variables should be chosen so that any nonlinearities remain memoryless in the digitization [361,348,554,555]. piano hammer is classically modeled as a nonlinear spring [493,63,178,76,60,486,164].10.14Specifically, the piano-hammer damping in Fig.9.22 is typically approximated by , and the spring is nonlinear and memoryless according to a simple power law:
This force is balanced at all times by the downward string force (string tension times slope difference), exactly as analyzed in §9.3.1 above.
piano hammers shows significant hysteresis memory, an improved piano-hammer felt model is
where (s), and again denotes piano key number . Equation (9.21) is said to be a good approximation under normal playing conditions. A more complete hysteresis model is 
piano-hammer mass may be approximated across the keyboard by 
Ideal String Struck by a Mass