Getting back to acyclic convolution, we may write it as
Since is time limited to (or ), can be sampled at intervals of without time aliasing. If is time-limited to , then will be time limited to . Therefore, we may sample at intervals of
or less along the unit circle. This is the dual of the usual sampling theorem.
where is the frame size and is the filter length. Our final expression for is
where is the length DFT of the zero-padded frame , and is the length DFT of , also zero-padded out to length , with .
Note that the terms in the outer sum overlap when even if . In general, an LTI filtering by increases the amount of overlap among the frames.
This completes our derivation of FFT convolution between an indefinitely long signal and a reasonably short FIR filter (short enough that its zero-padded DFT can be practically computed using one FFT).
Example of Overlap-Add Convolution
STFT of COLA Decomposition