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## Flash website- end of an era

inOver 10 years ago I started a website ( www.fourier-series.com)in which I b= uilt interactive flash programs to teach various engineering...

Over 10 years ago I started a website ( www.fourier-series.com)in which I b= uilt interactive flash programs to teach various engineering concepts. I In= itially designed these programs to personally understand DSP and then to pa= ss along what I learned to others****. These topics were fourier series, di= screte fourier series, fourier transforms filtering I/Q modulation and also= some RF s...

## Doppler effect detection

inHi all, is it possible to know, without any prior, if an incoming signal has a Doppler effect? That's it, to know if the source is...

Hi all, is it possible to know, without any prior, if an incoming signal has a Doppler effect? That's it, to know if the source is moving to (or away from) the detector without any knowledge of the frequency. I can imagine that if the source is not moving directly towards (or away) the detector, but with an angle, the Doppler effect changes hence it is detectable. How about a dir...

## LOW SNR FFT

inHello, I am processing an audio signal with CS4244 codec at 24 bits and 48kHz. Every 2048 samples the FFT is calculated and its...

Hello, I am processing an audio signal with CS4244 codec at 24 bits and 48kHz. Every 2048 samples the FFT is calculated and its amplitude. Without input signal I get FFT values ââclose to 30dB. With maximum input values ââ(overflow) I get values ââof 90dB, with a scale of 0 to 120dB. Why not get a dynamic range of 100-110dB as is logical

## FFT zero analyzing pink noise

inIm doing the pink noise FFT. I calculate the frequency of 1kHz by adding the contribution of the corresponding bins. Is it possible that sometimes...

Im doing the pink noise FFT. I calculate the frequency of 1kHz by adding the contribution of the corresponding bins. Is it possible that sometimes the result is zero? Thanks.

## 5-point stencil or Savitsky-Golay for differences

inI had some code computing the second difference of a sampled signal as (x(n-1)-2x(n)+x(n+1))/(square of interval) I only needed a crude estimate...

I had some code computing the second difference of a sampled signal as (x(n-1)-2x(n)+x(n+1))/(square of interval) I only needed a crude estimate of the second derivative in this case. Then I came across "five point stencils" By this method, the second difference is (-x(n-2)+16x(n-1)-30n(n)+16x(n+1)-x(n+2))/12/(square of interval) And then 5-sample Savitsky-Golay formula, which seems rath...

## Power Ratios?

inI'm confused by some code I wrote to measure signal amplitude from a CODEC. The FPGA sampled for some period of time squaring the samples and...

I'm confused by some code I wrote to measure signal amplitude from a CODEC. The FPGA sampled for some period of time squaring the samples and summing them up. I did not take the square root of the result, at least not in the FPGA. I would expect this result to be proportional to the power in the signal. When I compare this number at multiple frequencies to get the variations,

## Correlation Versus Simple Filter

inGentle Readers, Ok, I've been out of DSP for way too long so maybe this is a stupid question, but in the interest of getting my feet wet...

Gentle Readers, Ok, I've been out of DSP for way too long so maybe this is a stupid question, but in the interest of getting my feet wet again, here goes. Let's say we have a tone which we want to detect. Which is going to give better performance, correlation followed by a threshold or a simple bandpass filter followed by an energy detector and threshold? -- Randy Yates, DSP/Embedded ...

## Ultrasonic speech

inA client for unknown reasons wants to emit speech in teh frequency range above 20kHz. I was wondering what is the best way around this to do a...

A client for unknown reasons wants to emit speech in teh frequency range above 20kHz. I was wondering what is the best way around this to do a frequency shift. Then presumably I would need a sound card on a PC with high sampling rate and ultrasonic amplifier and loudspeaker. (this can be bought). So I sample at say 44.1KHz as usual a section of speech and store to wav file. Then I

## Elwyn Berlekamp RIP

inA few of us had the great fortune to work with Elwyn Berlekamp during our careers. He passed away on April 9, 2019. The most prolific and...

A few of us had the great fortune to work with Elwyn Berlekamp during our careers. He passed away on April 9, 2019. The most prolific and most genius expert on algebraic coding, Berlekamp also contributed significantly to game theory, cryptology, and quant. He was a member of the USA National Academies of both Engineering and Science, recipient of both the Shannon Award and the Hamming M...

## Homodyne complex frequency shift

inHi, the input signal is sin(t), I multiply it with cos(t) to get the I component and sin(t) to get the Q component. So...

Hi, the input signal is sin(t), I multiply it with cos(t) to get the I component and sin(t) to get the Q component. So then I(t)=sin(t)*cos(t)=0.5*sin(2t) Q(t)=sin(t)^2 I would expect only the DC component to persist, but instead I have two quickly wiggling waves. What is missing to shift 1kHz to DC without introducing the mirror frequencies? Thanks in advance!

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