## Capacitors

A *capacitor* can be made physically using two parallel conducting
plates which are held close together (but not touching). Electric
charge can be stored in a capacitor by applying a voltage across the
plates.

The defining equation of a capacitor is

where denotes the capacitor's

*charge*in

*Coulombs*, is the

*capacitance*in

*Farads*, and is the

*voltage drop*across the capacitor in volts. Differentiating with respect to time gives

*current*in

*Amperes*. Note that, by convention, the current is taken to be positive when flowing from plus to minus across the capacitor (see the arrow in Fig.E.1 which indicates the direction of current flow--there is only one current flowing clockwise around the loop formed by the voltage source, resistor, and capacitor when an external voltage is applied).

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides gives

Assuming a zero initial voltage across the capacitor at time 0, we have

*driving-point impedance*of the capacitor. The driving-point impedance facilitates

*steady state analysis*(zero initial conditions) by allowing the capacitor to be analyzed like a simple resistor, with value Ohms.

#### Mechanical Equivalent of a Capacitor is a Spring

The mechanical analog of a capacitor is the *compliance of a
spring*. The voltage across a capacitor corresponds to the
force used to displace a spring. The charge stored in
the capacitor corresponds to the displacement of the spring.
Thus, Eq.(E.2) corresponds to *Hooke's law for ideal springs*:

*spring constant*or

*spring stiffness*. Note that Hooke's law is usually written as . The quantity is called the

*spring compliance*.

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Inductors

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Example Analog Filter