## Why Time-Domain Zero Stuffing Produces Multiple Frequency-Domain Spectral Images

This blog explains why, in the process of time-domain interpolation (sample rate increase), zero stuffing a time sequence with zero-valued samples produces an increased-length time sequence whose spectrum contains replications of the original...

## The Exponential Nature of the Complex Unit Circle

Introduction This is an article to hopefully give an understanding to Euler's magnificent equation: $$ e^{i\theta} = cos( \theta ) + i \cdot sin( \theta ) $$ This equation is usually proved using the Taylor series expansion for the given...

## The Number 9, Not So Magic After All

This blog is not about signal processing. Rather, it discusses an interesting topic in number theory, the magic of the number 9. As such, this blog is for people who are charmed by the behavior and properties of numbers. For decades I've thought...

## Signed serial-/parallel multiplication

Keywords: Binary signed multiplication implementation, RTL, Verilog, algorithm Summary A detailed discussion of bit-level trickstery in signed-signed multiplication Algorithm based on Wikipedia example Includes a Verilog implementation with...

## Understanding and Preventing Overflow (I Had Too Much to Add Last Night)

Happy Thanksgiving! Maybe the memory of eating too much turkey is fresh in your mind. If so, this would be a good time to talk about overflow. In the world of floating-point arithmetic, overflow is possible but not particularly common. You can...

## Goertzel Algorithm for a Non-integer Frequency Index

If you've read about the Goertzel algorithm, you know it's typically presented as an efficient way to compute an individual kth bin result of an N-point discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The integer-valued frequency index k is in the range of...

## Adventures in Signal Processing with Python

Author’s note: This article was originally called Adventures in Signal Processing with Python (MATLAB? We don’t need no stinkin' MATLAB!) — the allusion to The Treasure of the Sierra Madre has been removed, in deference to being...

## Python scipy.signal IIR Filtering: An Example

Introduction In the last posts I reviewed how to use the Python scipy.signal package to design digital infinite impulse response (IIR) filters, specifically, using the iirdesign function (IIR design I and IIR design...

## Polyphase Filters and Filterbanks

ALONG CAME POLY Polyphase filtering is a computationally efficient structure for applying resampling and filtering to a signal. Most digital filters can be applied in a polyphase format, and it is also possible to create efficient resampling...

## Coupled-Form 2nd-Order IIR Resonators: A Contradiction Resolved

This blog clarifies how to obtain and interpret the z-domain transfer function of the coupled-form 2nd-order IIR resonator. The coupled-form 2nd-order IIR resonator was developed to overcome a shortcoming in the standard 2nd-order IIR resonator....

## Discrete-Time PLLs, Part 1: Basics

In this series of tutorials on discrete-time PLLs we will be focusing on Phase-Locked Loops that can be implemented in discrete-time signal proessors such as FPGAs, DSPs and of course, MATLAB.

## Round Round Get Around: Why Fixed-Point Right-Shifts Are Just Fine

Today’s topic is rounding in embedded systems, or more specifically, why you don’t need to worry about it in many cases.One of the issues faced in computer arithmetic is that exact arithmetic requires an ever-increasing bit length to...

## Python number crunching faster? Part I

Everyone has their favorite computing platform, regardless if it is Matlab, Octave, Scilab, Mathematica, Mathcad, etc. I have been using Python and the common numerical and scientific packages available. Personally, I have found this...

## Matlab Code to Synthesize Multiplierless FIR Filters

This article presents Matlab code to synthesize multiplierless Finite Impulse Response (FIR) lowpass filters. A filter coefficient can be represented as a sum of powers of 2. For example, if a coefficient = decimal 5 multiplies input x,...

## New Comments System (please help me test it)

I thought it would take me a day or two to implement, it took almost two weeks...But here it is, the new comments systems for blogs, heavily inspired by the forum system I developed earlier this year. Which means that:You can easily add...

## Discrete Wavelet Transform Filter Bank Implementation (part 2)

Following the previous blog entry: http://www.dsprelated.com/showarticle/115.php Difference between DWT and DWPT Before getting to the equivalent filter obtention, I first want to talk about the difference between DWT(Discrete Wavelet...

## Discrete Wavelet Transform Filter Bank Implementation (part 1)

UPDATE: Added graphs and code to explain the frequency division of the branches The focus of this article is to briefly explain an implementation of this transform and several filter bank forms. Theoretical information about DWT can be found...

## Ten Little Algorithms, Part 2: The Single-Pole Low-Pass Filter

Other articles in this series: Part 1: Russian Peasant Multiplication Part 2: The Single-Pole Low-Pass Filter Part 3: Welford’s Method (And Friends) Part 4: Topological Sort I’m writing this article in a room with a bunch of...

## 3 Good News

Good News #1 Last week, I announced a new and ambitious reward program that will be funded by the new Vendors Directory. This week, I am happy to announce that we have our firsts two sponsors! Quantum Leaps & Abelon Systems have...

## Free DSP Books on the Internet

While surfing the "net" I have occasionally encountered signal processing books whose chapters could be downloaded to my computer. I started keeping a list of those books and, over the years, that list has grown to over forty books. Perhaps the...