### Dan Boschen (@DanBoschen)

The Sigma is the accumulator (for Sigma-Delta DAC) or integrator (for Sigma-Delta ADC as shown below) just prior to decision and feedback. The output of the decision...

They are both the same thing and used interchangeably. I must admit that I use both depending on how I wake up in the morning. My impression is Sigma-Delta is more...

I agree with you that the CIC still has viable applications but don't agree that "single bit is very limited". In particular we are seeing more and more single...

... I use the DFT to synthesize antenna patterns in multi-element arrays for this reason. I love it when disciplines overlap to the same underlying principles!

Thanks yes I can't underline enough how much visualizing phasors and working with complex signals simplifies the intuition for DSP. My courses start with this in...

Nice question Kaz! Is “The frequency response is the Fourier Transform of the Impulse Response” an insufficient intuition for you? Perhaps then more intuition...

In most depictions of the standard forms, the feedback coefficients are negated. This is just convenient convention based on how the transfer function as given maps...

The intuition of converting the symmetric or antisymmetric coefficients to real sinusoidal components is helpful for the large subset of all possible FIR filters...

Ah ok! Good clarification- that makes a lot of sense. So in applications where down-sampling is to be done on a multi-bit signal, perhaps the CIC is still a viable...

Very nice fred!!! I laughed out loud at all the intro slides. Yes CIC very bad with floating point. I believe with fixed point we can overflow once with no consequence...

I don’t think you are necessarily “wrong” in your thought process - it is just a matter of being clear on how the frequency axis is scaled. Each block on its...

The z^{-1} blocks shown represent a one sample delay for the sampling rate of that block. With that view, they are all correct as Mth order CIC decimate by 2 filters. Be...

Krishk- Did the update get to the root of your question or is there still some confusion here? It may help to know that for small angles beta, the sidebands due...

An NCO is equivalent to a fractional divider of the master clock. In general when you divide any frequency tone with phase noise by $N$, the phase noise goes down...

I have seen "DDS" referred to the combination of an NCO with a D/A (meaning providing an analog output) whereas an NCO is providing a digitally generated source....

I updated that post to focus on the phase noise cancellation, bottom lined here:This occurs in down-conversion only and not in up-conversion given the output in...

Did your same post on Stack Exchange not answer your question?https://dsp.stackexchange.com/questions/87286/corr...

Often decimation filtering is done very simply with averaging: a CIC decimation filter is mathematically equivalent to a moving average over D samples followed...

Yes, no disagreement with that. I was trying to provide an explanation how it is the same and yet the same processing gain concepts apply (but apparently I didn't...

This does apply equally in reverse, and you are correct that the operations are symmetric other than the sign on the exponential. Further by convention we scale...

Hi David-The FFT is a narrow band filter, and the quantization noise (up to the limits of the SFDR) is spread evenly across all bins, so you can get a lot more bits...

Sorry for my distraction about bin power spread due to windowing which is my preferred use of processing gain in an FFT. My bigger point was there is no actual change...

A noise density is an easier way I think to view this, as the noise density (in power/Hz specifically NOT power/bin) for spread waveforms (such as quantization...

No the power spectral density will remain constant if the transmitter transmits at a constant power the same waveform (since the PSD is the power spread over frequency). There...

Time varying channels due to Doppler and multipath will be a big limitation. If there are no other temporal variations (such as Doppler from movement or channel...

A resampled FIR is also a very good solution for this case (even decimating to implement the LPF and interpolating after if the higher sampling rate is needed)....

Related but those don’t really fit the bill as they are used to compare two complex magnitudes rather than estimate the complex magnitude. However what I didn’t...

Very nice Rick! I didn't know that, thanks for the additional history and nice work. Until I reread the post, I was going to go forward from this point thinking...

This is the "Alpha Max + Beta Min" algorithm as a high-speed approximation for the magnitude of a complex number (or more generically the square root of the sum...

If the RF Bandwidth is 10 MHz there is no need to sample at or more than 30.72 MHz assuming complex baseband samples —sampling at twice the FFT sampling rate...

This is also referred to as “undersampling”. Key requirements and considerations to do this properly are that the analog input bandwidth of the ADC surpasses...

Yes you are correct and that Matlab and Octave do the expected conjugation. Apparently your signal has been already conjugated which can occur when the spectrum...

What may be missing is the complex conjugate that is required when doing a complex correlation. Correlation is the integration of the complex conjugate product of...

Have you considered windowing prior to the FFT? This will minimize the spectral leakage at the expense of widening the main lobe (frequency selectivity). Given you...

I recommend modeling the baseband equivalent signal which is the complex magnitude and phase versus time (the analytic signal moved to DC). There is no reason to...

Thanks, that is handy! The derivation now that I think about it seems straightforward. What we see is we are just lowering "S" in SNR directly: SNR = 20Log(Sine...

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