## STUDY OF DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

Modulation is the process of facilitating the transfer of information over a medium. Typically the objective of a digital communication system is to transport digital data between two or more nodes. In radio communications this is usually achieved by adjusting a physical characteristic of a sinusoidal carrier, either the frequency, phase, amplitude or a combination thereof . This is performed in real systems with a modulator at the transmitting end to impose the physical change to the carrier and a demodulator at the receiving end to detect the resultant modulation on reception. Hence, modulation can be objectively defined as the process of converting information so that it can be successfully sent through a medium. This thesis deals with the current digital modulation techniques used in industry. Also, the thesis examines the qualitative and quantitative criteria used in selection of one modulation technique over the other. All the experiments, and realted data collected were obtained using MATLAB and SIMULINK

## Region based Active Contour Segmentation

In this paper, we propose a natural framework that allows any region-based segmentation energy to be re-formulated in a local way. We consider local rather than global image statistics and evolve a contour based on local information. Localized contours are capable of segmenting objects with heterogeneous feature profiles that would be difficult to capture correctly using a standard global method. The presented technique is versatile enough to be used with any global region-based active contour energy and instill in it the benefits of localization. We describe this framework and demonstrate the localization of three well-known energies in order to illustrate how our framework can be applied to any energy. We then compare each localized energy to its global counterpart to show the improvements that can be achieved. Next, an in-depth study of the behaviors of these energies in response to the degree of localization is given. Finally, we show results on challenging images to illustrate the robust and accurate segmentations that are possible with this new class of active contour models.

## LOW-RESOURCE DELAYLESS SUBBAND ADAPTIVE FILTER USING WEIGHTED OVERLAP-ADD

A delayless structure targeted for low-resource implementation is proposed to eliminate filterbank processing delays in subband adaptive filters (SAFs). Rather than using direct IFFT or polyphase filterbanks to transform the SAFs back into the time-domain, the proposed method utilizes a weighted overlap-add (WOLA) synthesis. Low-resource real-time implementations are targeted and as such do not involve long (as long as the echo plant) FFT or IFFT operations. Also, the proposed approach facilitates time distribution of the adaptive filter reconstruction calculations crucial for efficient real-time and hardware implementation. The method is implemented on an oversampled WOLA filterbank employed as part of an echo cancellation application. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed implementation outperforms conventional SAF systems since the signals used in actual adaptive filtering are not distorted by filterbank aliasing. The method is a good match for partial update adaptive algorithms since segments of the time-domain adaptive filter are sequentially reconstructed and updated.

## OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DIGITAL EQUIVALENTS TO ANALOG FILTERS

The proposed optimal algorithm for the digitizing of analog filters is based on two existing filter design methods: the extended window design (EWD) and the matched–pole (MP) frequency sampling design. The latter is closely related to the filter design with iterative weighted least squares (WLS). The optimization is performed with an original MP design that yields an equiripple digitizing error. Then, a drastic reduction of the digitizing error is achieved through the introduction of a fractional time shift that minimizes the magnitude of the equiripple error within a given frequency interval. The optimal parameters thus obtained can be used to generate the EWD equations, together with a variable fractional delay output, as described in an earlier paper. Finally, in contrast to the WLS procedure, which relies on a “good guess” of the weighting function, the MP optimization is straightforward.

## A NEW PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATION FOR PARTICLE FILTERS AND ITS APPLICATION TO ADAPTIVE WAVEFORM DESIGN

Sequential Monte Carlo particle ﬁlters (PFs) are useful for estimating nonlinear non-Gaussian dynamic system parameters. As these algorithms are recursive, their real-time implementation can be computationally complex. In this paper, we analyze the bottlenecks in existing parallel PF algorithms, and we propose a new approach that integrates parallel PFs with independent Metropolis-Hastings (PPF-IMH) algorithms to improve root mean-squared estimation error performance. We implement the new PPF-IMH algorithm on a Xilinx Virtex-5 ﬁeld programmable gate array (FPGA) platform. For a onedimensional problem and using 1,000 particles, the PPF-IMH architecture with four processing elements utilizes less than 5% Virtex-5 FPGA resources and takes 5.85 μs for one iteration. The algorithm performance is also demonstrated when designing the waveform for an agile sensing application.

## A pole-zero placement technique for designing second-order IIR parametric equalizer filters

A new procedure is presented for designing second-order parametric equalizer filters. In contrast to the traditional approach, in which the design is based on a bilinear transform of an analog filter, the presented procedure allows for designing the filter directly in the digital domain. A rather intuitive technique known as pole-zero placement, is treated here in a quantitative way. It is shown that by making some meaningful approximations, a set of relatively simple design equations can be obtained. Design examples of both notch and resonance filters are included to illustrate the performance of the proposed method, and to compare with state-of-the-art solutions.

## Adaptive distributed noise reduction for speech enhancement in wireless acoustic sensor networks

An adaptive distributed noise reduction algorithm for speech enhancement is considered, which operates in a wireless acoustic sensor network where each node collects multiple microphone signals. In previous work, it was shown theoretically that for a stationary scenario, the algorithm provides the same signal estimators as the centralized multi-channel Wiener filter, while significantly compressing the data that is transmitted between the nodes. Here, we present simulation results of a fully adaptive implementation of the algorithm, in a non-stationary acoustic scenario with a moving speaker and two babble noise sources. The algorithm is implemented using a weighted overlap-add technique to reduce the overall input-output delay. It is demonstrated that good results can be obtained by estimating the required signal statistics with a long-term forgetting factor without downdating, even though the signal statistics change along with the iterative filter updates. It is also demonstrated that simultaneous node updating provides a significantly smoother and faster tracking performance compared to sequential node updating.

## EFFICIENT MAPPING OF ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS ON MULTI-PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES

Modern microprocessor technology is migrating from simply increasing clock speeds on a single processor to placing multiple processors on a die to increase throughput and power performance in every generation. To utilize the potential of such a system, signal processing algorithms have to be efficiently parallelized so that the load can be distributed evenly among the multiple processing units. In this paper, we study several advanced deterministic and stochastic signal processing algorithms and their computation using multiple processing units. Specifically, we consider two commonly used time-frequency signal representations, the short-time Fourier transform and the Wigner distribution, and we demonstrate their parallelization with low communication overhead. We also consider sequential Monte Carlo estimation techniques such as particle filtering, and we demonstrate that its multiple processor implementation requires large data exchanges and thus a high communication overhead. We propose a modified mapping scheme that reduces this overhead at the expense of a slight loss in accuracy, and we evaluate the performance of the scheme for a state estimation problem with respect to accuracy and scalability.

## Closing the gap: CPU and FPGA Trends in sustainable floating-point BLAS performance

Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have long been an attractive alternative to microprocessors for computing tasks — as long as floating-point arithmetic is not required. Fueled by the advance of Moore’s Law, FPGAs are rapidly reaching sufficient densities to enhance peak floating-point performance as well. The question, however, is how much of this peak performance can be sustained. This paper examines three of the basic linear algebra subroutine (BLAS) functions: vector dot product, matrix-vector multiply, and matrix multiply. A comparison of microprocessors, FPGAs, and Reconfigurable Computing platforms is performed for each operation. The analysis highlights the amount of memory bandwidth and internal storage needed to sustain peak performance with FPGAs. This analysis considers the historical context of the last six years and is extrapolated for the next six years.

## BLAS Comparison on FPGA, CPU and GPU

High Performance Computing (HPC) or scientific codes are being executed across a wide variety of computing platforms from embedded processors to massively parallel GPUs. We present a comparison of the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) using double-precision floating point on an FPGA, CPU and GPU. On the CPU and GPU, we utilize standard libraries on state-of-the-art devices. On the FPGA, we have developed parameterized modular implementations for the dot product and Gaxpy or matrix-vector multiplication. In order to obtain optimal performance for any aspect ratio of the matrices, we have designed a high-throughput accumulator to perform an efficient reduction of floating point values. To support scalability to large data-sets, we target the BEE3 FPGA platform. We use performance and energy efficiency as metrics to compare the different platforms. Results show that FPGAs offer comparable performance as well as 2.7 to 293 times better energy efficiency for the test cases that we implemented on all three platforms.

## Using the DFT as a Filter: Correcting a Misconception

I have read, in some of the literature of DSP, that when the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is used as a filter the process of performing a DFT causes an input signal's spectrum to be frequency translated down to zero Hz (DC). I can understand why someone might say that, but I challenge that statement as being incorrect. Here are my thoughts.

## Filter a Rectangular Pulse with no Ringing

To filter a rectangular pulse without any ringing, there is only one requirement on the filter coefficients: they must all be positive. However, if we want the leading and trailing edge of the pulse to be symmetrical, then the coefficients must be symmetrical. What we are describing is basically a window function.

## Specifying the Maximum Amplifier Noise When Driving an ADC

I recently learned an interesting rule of thumb regarding the use of an amplifier to drive the input of an analog to digital converter (ADC). The rule of thumb describes how to specify the maximum allowable noise power of the amplifier.

## STUDY OF DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

Modulation is the process of facilitating the transfer of information over a medium. Typically the objective of a digital communication system is to transport digital data between two or more nodes. In radio communications this is usually achieved by adjusting a physical characteristic of a sinusoidal carrier, either the frequency, phase, amplitude or a combination thereof . This is performed in real systems with a modulator at the transmitting end to impose the physical change to the carrier and a demodulator at the receiving end to detect the resultant modulation on reception. Hence, modulation can be objectively defined as the process of converting information so that it can be successfully sent through a medium. This thesis deals with the current digital modulation techniques used in industry. Also, the thesis examines the qualitative and quantitative criteria used in selection of one modulation technique over the other. All the experiments, and realted data collected were obtained using MATLAB and SIMULINK

## A pole-zero placement technique for designing second-order IIR parametric equalizer filters

A new procedure is presented for designing second-order parametric equalizer filters. In contrast to the traditional approach, in which the design is based on a bilinear transform of an analog filter, the presented procedure allows for designing the filter directly in the digital domain. A rather intuitive technique known as pole-zero placement, is treated here in a quantitative way. It is shown that by making some meaningful approximations, a set of relatively simple design equations can be obtained. Design examples of both notch and resonance filters are included to illustrate the performance of the proposed method, and to compare with state-of-the-art solutions.

## Adaptive distributed noise reduction for speech enhancement in wireless acoustic sensor networks

An adaptive distributed noise reduction algorithm for speech enhancement is considered, which operates in a wireless acoustic sensor network where each node collects multiple microphone signals. In previous work, it was shown theoretically that for a stationary scenario, the algorithm provides the same signal estimators as the centralized multi-channel Wiener filter, while significantly compressing the data that is transmitted between the nodes. Here, we present simulation results of a fully adaptive implementation of the algorithm, in a non-stationary acoustic scenario with a moving speaker and two babble noise sources. The algorithm is implemented using a weighted overlap-add technique to reduce the overall input-output delay. It is demonstrated that good results can be obtained by estimating the required signal statistics with a long-term forgetting factor without downdating, even though the signal statistics change along with the iterative filter updates. It is also demonstrated that simultaneous node updating provides a significantly smoother and faster tracking performance compared to sequential node updating.

## Bilinear Transformation Made Easy

A formula is derived and demonstrated that is capable of directly generating digital filter coefficients from an analog filter prototype using the bilinear transformation. This formula obviates the need for any algebraic manipulation of the analog prototype filter and is ideal for use in embedded systems that must take in any general analog filter specification and dynamically generate digital filter coefficients directly usable in difference equations.

## Design and implementation of odd-order wave digital lattice lowpass filters, from specifications to Motorol DSP56307EVM module

This thesis is dedicated to applying and developing explicit formulas for the design and implementation of odd-order lattice Lowpass wave digital filters (WDFs) on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), such as a Motorola DSP56307EVM (Evaluation Module). The direct design method of Gazsi for filter types such as Butterworfh, Chebyshev, inverse Chebyshev, and Cauer (Elliptic) provides a straightforward method for calculating the coefficients without an extensive knowledge of digital signal processing. A program package to design and implement odd-order WDFs, including detailed procedures and examples, is presented in this thesis and includes not only the calculations of the coefficients, but also the simulation on a MATLAB platform and an implementation on a Motorola DSP56307EVM board. It is very quick, effective and convenient to obtain the coefficients when the user enters a few parameters according to the general specifications; to verify the characteristics of the designed filter; to simulate the filter on the MATLAB platform; to implement the filter on the DSP board; and to compare the results between the simulation and the implementation.

## The DFT of Finite-Length Time-Reversed Sequences

Recently I've been reading papers on underwater acoustic communications systems and this caused me to investigate the frequency-domain effects of time-reversal of time-domain sequences. I created this article because there is so little coverage of this topic in the literature of DSP.

## An Introduction To Compressive Sampling

This article surveys the theory of compressive sensing, also known as compressed sensing or CS, a novel sensing/sampling paradigm that goes against the common wisdom in data acquisition.