## Simulink-Simulation of SSB demodulation

Simulink-Simulation of SSB demodulation or modulation from the article “Understanding the ‘Phasing Method’ of Single Sideband Demodulation” by Richard Lyons Josef Hoffmann The article “Understanding the ‘Phasing Method’ of Single...

## Setting Carrier to Noise Ratio in Simulations

When simulating digital receivers, we often want to check performance with added Gaussian noise. In this article, I’ll derive the simple equations for the rms noise level needed to produce a desired carrier to noise ratio (CNR or...

## Update to a Narrow Bandpass Filter in Octave or Matlab

Following my earlier blog post (June 2020) featuring a Narrow Bandpass Filter, I’ve had some useful feedback and suggestions. This has inspired me to come up with an updated version, incorporating the following changes compared to the earlier...

## An Efficient Full-Band Sliding DFT Spectrum Analyzer

In this blog I present two computationally efficient full-band discrete Fourier transform (DFT) networks that compute the 0th bin and all the positive-frequency bin outputs for an N-point DFT in real-time on a sample-by-sample basis. An Even-N...

## Add a Power Marker to a Power Spectral Density (PSD) Plot

Perhaps we should call most Power Spectral Density (PSD) calculations relative PSD, because usually we don’t have to worry about absolute power levels. However, for cases (e.g., measurements or simulations) where we are concerned with...

## A Simpler Goertzel Algorithm

In this blog I propose a Goertzel algorithm that is simpler than the version of the Goertzel algorithm that is traditionally presented DSP textbooks. Below I very briefly describe the DSP textbook version of the Goertzel algorithm followed by a...

## 60-Hz Noise and Baseline Drift Reduction in ECG Signal Processing

Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are obtained by monitoring the electrical activity of the human heart for medical diagnostic purposes [1]. This blog describes a very efficient digital filter used to reduce both 60 Hz AC powerline noise and...

## Find Aliased ADC or DAC Harmonics (with animation)

When a sinewave is applied to a data converter (ADC or DAC), device nonlinearities produce harmonics. If a harmonic frequency is greater than the Nyquist frequency, the harmonic appears as an alias. In this case, it is not at once...

## Adaptive Beamforming is like Squeezing a Water Balloon

Adaptive beamforming was first developed in the 1960s for radar and sonar applications. The main idea is that signals can be captured using multiple sensors and the sensor outputs can be combined to enhance the signals propagating from...

## Compute Images/Aliases of CIC Interpolators/Decimators

Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC) filters are efficient fixed-point interpolators or decimators. For these filters, all coefficients are equal to 1, and there are no multipliers. They are typically used when a large change in sample...

## A Beginner's Guide To Cascaded Integrator-Comb (CIC) Filters

This article discusses the behavior, mathematics, and implementation of cascaded integrator-comb filters.

## Understanding and Relating E_{b}/N_{o}, SNR, and other Power Efficiency Metrics

●8 comments Introduction Evaluating the performance of communication systems, and wireless systems in particular, usually involves quantifying some performance metric as a function of Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) or some similar measurement. Many systems...

## A Fixed-Point Introduction by Example

●9 commentsIntroduction The finite-word representation of fractional numbers is known as fixed-point. Fixed-point is an interpretation of a 2's compliment number usually signed but not limited to sign representation. It...

## A Beginner's Guide to OFDM

In the recent past, high data rate wireless communications is often considered synonymous to an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system. OFDM is a special case of multi-carrier communication as opposed to a conventional...

## Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) - A Tutorial

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) is one of the most spectrally efficient modulation schemes available. Due to its constant envelope, it is resilient to non-linear distortion and was therefore chosen as the modulation technique for the GSM cell phone...

## FFT Interpolation Based on FFT Samples: A Detective Story With a Surprise Ending

●4 commentsThis blog presents several interesting things I recently learned regarding the estimation of a spectral value located at a frequency lying between previously computed FFT spectral samples. My curiosity about this FFT interpolation process was triggered by reading a spectrum analysis paper written by three astronomers.

## Simplest Calculation of Half-band Filter Coefficients

Half-band filters are lowpass FIR filters with cut-off frequency of one-quarter of sampling frequency fs and odd symmetry about fs/4 [1]*. And it so happens that almost half of the coefficients are zero. The passband and stopband bandwiths are equal, making these filters useful for decimation-by-2 and interpolation-by-2. Since the zero coefficients make them computationally efficient, these filters are ubiquitous in DSP systems. Here we will compute half-band coefficients using the window method. While the window method typically does not yield the fewest taps for a given performance, it is useful for learning about half-band filters. Efficient equiripple half-band filters can be designed using the Matlab function firhalfband [2].

## Polyphase filter / Farrows interpolation

●6 commentsHello, this article is meant to give a quick overview over polyphase filtering and Farrows interpolation. A good reference with more depth is for example Fred Harris' paper: http://www.signumconcepts.com/IP_center/paper018.pdf The task is as...

## Understanding and Implementing the Sliding DFT

●4 commentsIntroduction In many applications the detection or processing of signals in the frequency domain offers an advantage over performing the same task in the time-domain. Sometimes the advantage is just a simpler or more conceptually...

## Handling Spectral Inversion in Baseband Processing

●3 commentsThe problem of "spectral inversion" comes up fairly frequently in the context of signal processing for communication systems. In short, "spectral inversion" is the reversal of the orientation of the signal bandwidth with...