## Model a Sigma-Delta DAC Plus RC Filter

Sigma-delta digital-to-analog converters (SD DAC’s) are often used for discrete-time signals with sample rate much higher than their bandwidth. For the simplest case, the DAC output is a single bit, so the only interface hardware required is a standard digital output buffer. Because of the high sample rate relative to signal bandwidth, a very simple DAC reconstruction filter suffices, often just a one-pole RC lowpass. In this article, I present a simple Matlab function that models the combination of a basic SD DAC and one-pole RC filter. This model allows easy evaluation of the overall performance for a given input signal and choice of sample rate, R, and C.

## DAC Zero-Order Hold Models

This article provides two simple time-domain models of a DAC’s zero-order hold. These models will allow us to find time and frequency domain approximations of DAC outputs, and simulate analog filtering of those outputs. Developing the models is also a good way to learn about the DAC ZOH function.

## Decimators Using Cascaded Multiplierless Half-band Filters

In my last post, I provided coefficients for several multiplierless half-band FIR filters. In the comment section, Rick Lyons mentioned that such filters would be useful in a multi-stage decimator. For such an application, any subsequent multipliers save on resources, since they operate at a fraction of the maximum sample frequency. We’ll examine the frequency response and aliasing of a multiplierless decimate-by-8 cascade in this article, and we’ll also discuss an interpolator cascade using the same half-band filters.

## Pentagon Construction Using Complex Numbers

A method for constructing a pentagon using a straight edge and a ruler is deduced from the complex values of the Fifth Roots of Unity. Analytic values for the points are also derived.

## Multiplierless Half-band Filters and Hilbert Transformers

This article provides coefficients of multiplierless Finite Impulse Response 7-tap, 11-tap, and 15-tap half-band filters and Hilbert Transformers. Since Hilbert transformer coefficients are simply related to half-band coefficients, multiplierless Hilbert transformers are easily derived from multiplierless half-bands.

## Interpolator Design: Get the Stopbands Right

In this article, I present a simple approach for designing interpolators that takes the guesswork out of determining the stopbands.

## Return of the Delta-Sigma Modulators, Part 1: Modulation

About a decade ago, I wrote two articles: Modulation Alternatives for the Software Engineer (November 2011) Isolated Sigma-Delta Modulators, Rah Rah Rah! (April 2013) Each of these are about delta-sigma modulation, but they’re...

## Simple Discrete-Time Modeling of Lossy LC Filters

There are many software applications that allow modeling LC filters in the frequency domain. But sometimes it is useful to have a time domain model, such as when you need to analyze a mixed analog and DSP system. For example, the...

## A Beginner's Guide To Cascaded Integrator-Comb (CIC) Filters

This article discusses the behavior, mathematics, and implementation of cascaded integrator-comb filters.

## FFT Interpolation Based on FFT Samples: A Detective Story With a Surprise Ending

This blog presents several interesting things I recently learned regarding the estimation of a spectral value located at a frequency lying between previously computed FFT spectral samples. My curiosity about this FFT interpolation process was triggered by reading a spectrum analysis paper written by three astronomers.

## Understanding and Relating E_{b}/N_{o}, SNR, and other Power Efficiency Metrics

Introduction Evaluating the performance of communication systems, and wireless systems in particular, usually involves quantifying some performance metric as a function of Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) or some similar measurement. Many systems...

## A Fixed-Point Introduction by Example

Introduction The finite-word representation of fractional numbers is known as fixed-point. Fixed-point is an interpretation of a 2's compliment number usually signed but not limited to sign representation. It...

## Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) - A Tutorial

Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) is one of the most spectrally efficient modulation schemes available. Due to its constant envelope, it is resilient to non-linear distortion and was therefore chosen as the modulation technique for the GSM cell phone...

## Phase or Frequency Shifter Using a Hilbert Transformer

In this article, we'll describe how to use a Hilbert transformer to make a phase shifter or frequency shifter. In either case, the input is a real signal and the output is a real signal. We'll use some simple Matlab code to simulate these systems. After that, we'll go into a little more detail on Hilbert transformer theory and design.

## Second Order Discrete-Time System Demonstration

Discrete-time systems are remarkable: the time response can be computed from mere difference equations, and the coefficients ai, bi of these equations are also the coefficients of H(z). Here, I try to illustrate this remarkableness by converting a continuous-time second-order system to an approximately equivalent discrete-time system. With a discrete-time model, we can then easily compute the time response to any input. But note that the goal here is as much to understand the discrete-time model as it is to find the response.

## An Efficient Linear Interpolation Scheme

This article presents a computationally-efficient linear interpolation trick that requires at most one multiply per output sample.

## A Fast Real-Time Trapezoidal Rule Integrator

This article presents a computationally-efficient network for computing real?time discrete integration using the Trapezoidal Rule.

## 5G NR QC-LDPC Encoding Algorithm

3GPP 5G has been focused on structured LDPC codes known as quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes, which exhibit advantages over other types of LDPC codes with respect to the hardware implementations of encoding and decoding using...