# Examples in Matlab and Octave

This appendix contains some of the matlab scripts used in creating various figures in the text, as well as listings for the applications discussed in Chapter 10.

## Matlab for Spectrum Analysis Windows

### Blackman Window Example

Below is the Matlab script for creating Figures 2.6 and 2.7 in §2.5.4.

% Illustrate zero-phase zero-padding around a Blackman window

% Analysis parameters:
M = 31;         % Window length
N = 64;         % FFT length (zero padding factor = N/M)
Mo2 = (M-1)/2;  % Shorthand
dBCut = -100;   % Clip dB at this level

% Signal parameters (synthetic sinusoid):
wxT = pi/exp(1);% Sinusoid frequency in rad/sample
A = 1;          % Sinusoid amplitude
phix = pi/3;    % Sinusoid phase

% Compute the signal x:
n = [0:N-1];    % time indices for sinusoid and FFT
x = A * cos(wxT*n+phix); % a sinusoid

% Compute a causal Blackman window:
% w = blackman(M); % Matlab signal processing toolbox, or
w = .42-.5*cos(2*pi*(0:M-1)/(M-1))+.08*cos(4*pi*(0:M-1)/(M-1));

% Apply the window:
xw = w .* x(1:M);
% Note that we have "skipped" the first Mo2 samples of x
% since the center of the window is its proper time origin.

% Form the zero-padded FFT input buffer.
% Note how the negative-time portion goes on the right:
xwzp = [xw(Mo2+1:M),zeros(1,N-M),xw(1:Mo2)];
wzp = [w(Mo2+1:M),zeros(1,N-M),w(1:Mo2)];

figure(1);
subplot(1,1,1);  % force a clear
subplot(2,1,1);
n = -Mo2:Mo2;    % time axis for plot
stem(n,xw,'ok'); % windowed data
hold on;
plot(n,w,':k');  % window
plot(n,zeros(1,M),'-k');  % zero line
title('Blackman Windowed Sinusoid');
xlabel('Time (samples)');
ylabel('Amplitude');
text(-8,1,'(a)');
hold off;

subplot(2,1,2);
n = 0:N-1;     % FFT buffer time axis
stem(n,xwzp,'ok');
hold on;
plot(n,zeros(1,N),'-k');  % zero line
plot(n,wzp,':k');         % window
plot([N/2,N/2],[-1,1],'--k');  % dividing line
text(N/4,0.2,'positive time');
text(N/2+N/8,0.2,'negative time');
xlabel('Time (samples)');
ylabel('Amplitude');
text(-8,1,'(b)');

saveplot('../eps/zpblackmanT.eps');
hold off;

figure(2);
subplot(1,1,1); % force a clear

% Now show the window transform:
Xwzp = fft(xwzp);             % Blackman window transform
spec = 20*log10(abs(Xwzp));   % Spectral magnitude in dB
spec = spec - max(spec);      % Normalize to 0 db max
spec = max(spec,dBCut*ones(1,N)); % clip to dBCut dB

subplot(2,1,1);
fni = [0:1.0/N:1-1.0/N];   % Normalized frequency axis
bins = [0:N-1];            % Bin axis
Xwzpa = abs(Xwzp)
stem(bins,Xwzpa,'ok');
hold on;
plot([N/2,N/2],YLim,'--k'); % dividing line
text(5,7,'positive frequencies');
text(45,7,'negative frequencies');
%zpblackmanplot3d
axis([0,N-1,YLim]);
xlabel('Frequency (bins))');
ylabel('Magnitude (linear)');
text(-8,8,'(a)');

% Replot interpreting upper bin numbers as (-) frequencies:
subplot(2,1,2);
sbins = bins - N/2;
nh = N/2;
%fninf = fni - 0.5;               % Plot (-) freqs on the left
%plot(fninf,sXwzpa,'-k'); axis([-0.5,0.5,dBCut,10]); grid;
%plot(fni,Xwzpa,'-k'); grid;
stem(sbins,abs(sXwzpa),'ok');
axis([-N/2,N/2-1,YLim]);
hold on;
plot([0,0],YLim,'--k');  % dividing line
text(-20,7,'negative frequencies');
text(5,7,'positive frequencies');
xlabel('Frequency (bins))');
ylabel('Magnitude (linear)');
text(-48,8,'(b)');
saveplot('../eps/zpblackmanF.eps');
hold off;


### Matlab listing: dpssw.m

function [w,A,V] = dpssw(M,Wc);

% DPSSW - Compute Digital Prolate Spheroidal Sequence window of
% 	  length M, having cut-off frequency Wc in (0,pi).

k = (1:M-1);
s = sin(Wc*k)./ k;
c0 = [Wc,s];
A = toeplitz(c0);
[V,evals] = eig(A); % Only need the principal eigenvector
[emax,imax] = max(abs(diag(evals)));
w = V(:,imax);
w = w / max(w);


## Matlab for Finding Interpolated Spectral Peaks

### Matlab listing: findpeaks.m

function [peakamps,peaklocs,peakwidths,resid] = ...
findpeaks(data,npeaks,minwidth,maxwidth,minpeak,debug);
%FINDPEAKS Find up to npeaks interpolated peaks in data.
%
%  [peakamps,peaklocs,peakwidths,resid] =
%     findpeaks(data,npeaks,minwidth,maxwidth,minpeak,debug);
%
%       finds up to npeaks interpolated peaks in real data.
%       A peak is rejected if its width is
%         less than minwidth samples wide(default=1), or
%         less than minpeak in magnitude (default=min(data)).
%       Quadratic interpolation is used for peak interpolation.
%       Left-over data with peaks removed is returned in resid.
%       Peaks are returned in order of decreasing amplitude.
%         They can be sorted in order of location as follows:
%           [peaklocs,sorter] = sort(peaklocs);
%           amps = zeros(size(peakamps));
%           npeaks = length(peaklocs);
%           for col=1:npeaks,
%             amps(:,col) = peakamps(:,sorter(col));
%           end;
%         They can be sorted in order of width as follows:
%           [peakwidths,sorter] = sort(peakwidths);
%           peakamps = peakamps(sorter);
%           peaklocs = peaklocs(sorter);

len = length(data);

if nargin<6,
debug = 0;
end;

if nargin<5,
minpeak = min(data);
end;

if nargin<4,
maxwidth = 0;
end;

if nargin<3,
minwidth = 1;
end;

if nargin<2,
npeaks = len;
end;

peakamps = zeros(1,npeaks);
peaklocs = zeros(1,npeaks);
peakwidths = zeros(1,npeaks);
if debug, peaksarr = 1.1*max(data)*ones(size(data)); end;
if debug, orgdata = data; end;
if debug, npeaks, end

nrej = 0;
pdebug=debug;
ipeak=0;
while ipeak<npeaks
[ploc, pamp, pcurv] = maxr(data);
if (pamp==minpeak), warning('findpeaks:min amp reached');
break;
end
plocq = round(ploc);
ulim = min(len,plocq+1);
camp = pamp;
%
% Follow peak down to determine its width
%
drange = max(data) - minpeak; % data dynamic range
tol = drange * 0.01;
dmin = camp;
while ((ulim<len) & (data(ulim)<=dmin+tol)),
camp = data(ulim);
ulim = ulim + 1;
if (camp<dmin), dmin=camp; end
end;
ulim = ulim - 1;
lamp = camp;

llim = max(1,plocq-1);
camp = pamp;
dmin = camp;
while ((llim>1) & (data(llim)<=dmin+tol)),
camp = data(llim);
llim = llim - 1;
if (camp<dmin), dmin=camp; end
end;
llim = llim + 1;
uamp = camp;
%
% Remove the peak
%
data(llim:ulim) = min(lamp,uamp) * ones(1,ulim-llim+1);
%
% Reject peaks which are too narrow (indicated by zero loc and amp)
%
pwid = ulim - llim + 1;
if ~(pwid < minwidth),
ipeak = ipeak + 1;
peaklocs(ipeak) = ploc;
peakamps(ipeak) = pamp;
peakwidths(ipeak) = - 1/pcurv;
nrej = 0;
if pdebug>1
peaksarr(plocq) = pamp;
maxloc = min(len,2*round(max(peaklocs)));
ttl = sprintf(...
'Peak %d = %0.2f at %0.2f, width %d',ipeak,pamp,ploc,pwid);
if x == -1
pdebug = 0;
end
end
else
nrej = nrej + 1;
if (nrej >= 10),
warning('*** findpeaks: giving up (10 rejected peaks in a row)');
break;
end;
end;
end;
if (ipeak<npeaks),
warning(sprintf(...
'*** peaks.m: only %d peaks found instead of %d',ipeak,npeaks));
peakamps = peakamps(1:ipeak);
peaklocs = peaklocs(1:ipeak);
peakwidths = peakwidths(1:ipeak);
end;
resid = data;


### Matlab listing: maxr.m

function [xi,yi,hc] = maxr(a)
%MAXR   Find interpolated maximizer(s) and max value(s)
%       for (each column of) a.
%
%               [xi,yi,hc] = maxr(a)
%
%  Calls max() followed by qint() for quadratic interpolation.
%
[m,n] = size(a);
if m==1, a=a'; t=m; m=n; n=t; end;
[y,x] = max(a);
xi=x;    % vector of maximizer locations, one per col of a
yi=y;    % vector of maximum values, one per column of a
if nargout>2, hc = zeros(1,n); end
for j=1:n,   % loop over columns
if x(j)>1, % only support interior maxima
if x(j)<m,
[xdelta,yij,cj] = qint(a(x(j)-1,j),y(j),a(x(j)+1,j));
xi(j) = x(j) + xdelta;
if nargout>2, hc(j) = cj; end
if (nargout>1), yi(j) = yij; end
end;
end;
end;


### Matlab listing: qint.m

function [p,y,a] = qint(ym1,y0,yp1)
%QINT   Quadratic interpolation of 3 uniformly spaced samples
%
%               [p,y,a] = qint(ym1,y0,yp1)
%
%       returns extremum-location p, height y, and half-curvature a
%       of a parabolic fit through three points.
%       The parabola is given by y(x) = a*(x-p)^2+b,
%       where y(-1)=ym1, y(0)=y0, y(1)=yp1.

p = (yp1 - ym1)/(2*(2*y0 - yp1 - ym1));
if nargout>1
y = y0 - 0.25*(ym1-yp1)*p;
end;
if nargout>2
a = 0.5*(ym1 - 2*y0 + yp1);
end;


### Matlab listing: zpfmin.m

function [zpmin] = zpfmin(window,MT,freqBiasMax);
% [zpmin] = zpfmin(window,MT,freqBiasMax)
% returns the minimum zero-padding factor to achieve prescribed
% tolerances in sinusoidal peak parameters measured using the QIFFT
% method with the  window.
%
% INPUTS:
%   window      = 'rect', 'hamming', 'hann', or 'blackman'
%   MT          = window length (seconds)
%   freqBiasMax = max frequency bias allowed in peak frequency (Hz)
%   ampBiasMax  = max peak-magnitude bias allowed (relative fraction)
%
%   If ampBiasMaxPct is not specified, amplitude bias is not considered.
%
% RETURNED:
%
% EXAMPLE
%   Assuming the window contains one cycle of a sinusoid whose
%   frequency f must be estimated to within 0.1% accuracy, we have
%   zpfmin('blackman',1/f,0.001*f) = 1.9 for min zero-padding factor.
%   Similarly,
%     2 cycles under the Blackman window yields zpf > 1.5
%     4 cycles under the Blackman window yields zpf > 1.2
%     6 cycles under the Blackman window yields zpf > 1.02
%
% Reference:
%    "Design Criteria for Simple Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation
%     based on Quadratic Interpolation of FFT Magnitude Peaks", by
%    Mototsugu Abe and Julius O. Smith,
%    Audio Engineering Society Convention preprint 6256", NY, 2004.

%!test
%! assert(zpfmin('blackman',1,0.001),2.3609,0.001);

% disp(sprintf('%s window',window));
switch window
case 'rect'
c0 = 0.4467;
r0 = -0.3218;
c1 = 0.8560;
r1 = -0.2366;
case 'hamming'
c0 = 0.2456;
r0 = -0.3282;
c1 = 0.4381;
r1 = -0.2451;
case 'hann'
c0 = 0.2436;
r0 = -0.3288;
c1 = 0.4149;
r1 = -0.2456;
case 'blackman'
c0 = 0.1868;
r0 = -0.3307;
c1 = 0.3156;
r1 = -0.2475;
otherwise
error(sprintf('Window type %s unknown - say help zpfmin',window));
end

zpmin = c0*(MT*freqBiasMax)^r0;

if nargin>3
zpminamp = c1*(MT*freqBiasMax)^r1;
zpmin = max(zpmin,zpminamp);
end

if strcmp(window,'rect')
zpmin=max(1.7,zpmin); % See Abe & Smith 2004, Fig. 2 re. why this
else
zpmin=max(1,zpmin);
end


### Matlab listing: oboeanal.m

The following Matlab script illustrates use of the findpeaks function above to determine the pitch of an oboe tone (given the general location of the correct spectral peak) and configure a spectrum analysis using the rectangular, Hamming, and Blackman windows. This script was used to create Figures 3.16 through 3.18.

diary './dia/oboeanal.dia';
diary on;

zpf = 5; % desired min zero-padding factor in all FFTs
fn = '../wav/oboe.ff.C4B4.wav';
nx = length(x);
dur = nx/fs;
disp(sprintf(['Read %s, fs = %f, nbits = %d, ',...
'length = %d samples = %0.1f sec'],...
fn,fs,nbits,nx,dur));
soundsc(x,fs);
M = fs/10; % 100 ms window for pitch estimation
N = 2^nextpow2(M*zpf) % zero pad
Xzp = fft(x,N);

figure(K-1);
fmax = 500; % maximum freq in Hz
kmax = fmax*N/fs; % maximum freq in bins
prange = 1:kmax+1;
Xdb = dbn(Xzp(prange)); % dB normalized to 0 max
f = fs*[0:N-1]/N/1000; % frequency axis in kHz
plot(f(prange),Xdb);
ylabel('Magnitude (dB)');
xlabel('Normalized Frequency (cycles/sample)');
[amps,bins] = findpeaks(Xdb,1);
k0 = bins(1)-1;
f0 = k0*fs/N;
nP = fs/f0; % samples per period (used below)
disp(sprintf('Estimated pitch = %f Hz',f0));

% Test pitch estimate:
pause(ceil(dur)); % let previous sound finish
T = 1/fs;
t = 0:T:dur;
y = sawtooth(2*pi*f0*t);
sound(y,fs)

winnames={'none','boxcar','none','hamming','none','blackman'};

% Configure window analysis

for K=[2 4 6]
wintype = winnames{K};
M = ceil(K*nP); % min Blackman length
cmd = sprintf('w = %s(M);',wintype);
eval(cmd);
Nw = 2^nextpow2(M*zpf) % zero pad
xw = x(1:M) .* w;
Xwzp = fft(xw,Nw);
%fmax = 5*f0; % maximum freq in Hz
fmax = fs/4;
kmax = fmax*Nw/fs; % maximum freq in bins
prange = 1:kmax+1;
Xwdb = dbn(Xwzp(prange)); % dB normalized to 0 max

figure(K);
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(xw,'-k');
axis tight;
title(sprintf('Oboe data - %s window, K=%d',wintype,K));
ylabel('Amplitude');
xlabel('Time (samples)');
subplot(2,1,2);
f = fs*[0:Nw-1]/Nw/1000; % frequency axis in kHz
plot(f(prange),Xwdb,'-k'); grid on;
axis([f(prange(1)) f(prange(end)) -90 0]);
ylabel('Magnitude (dB)');
xlabel('Frequency (kHz)');

plotfile = sprintf('../eps/oboe%s.eps',wintype);
saveplot(plotfile);

end

diary off;


## Matlab for Computing Spectrograms

The Matlab Signal Processing Toolbox provides the command spectrogram for computing and displaying a spectrogram (and Octave has the command stft). As a side effect, it returns the complex STFT data in a matrix.

The myspectrogram function below illustrates computation of a spectrogram in matlab for purposes of basic spectrum analysis. It is compatible with the basic functionality of Matlab's spectrogram function, but does not implement all of its features.

We also include invmyspectrogram, which inverts a spectrogram to reproduce the corresponding time-domain signal. Finally, testmyspectrogram is included to illustrate their performance on test signal.

### Matlab listing: myspectrogram.m

function X = myspectrogram(x,nfft,fs,window,noverlap,doplot,dbdown);

%MYSPECTROGRAM Calculate spectrogram from signal.
% B = MYSPECTROGRAM(A,NFFT,Fs,WINDOW,NOVERLAP) calculates the
%     spectrogram for the signal in vector A.
%
% NFFT is the FFT size used for each frame of A.  It should be a
% power of 2 for fastest computation of the spectrogram.
%
% Fs is the sampling frequency. Since all processing parameters are
% in units of samples, Fs does not effect the spectrogram itself,
% but it is used for axis scaling in the plot produced when
% MYSPECTROGRAM is called with no output argument (see below).
%
% WINDOW is the length M window function applied, IN ZERO-PHASE
% FORM, to each frame of A.  M cannot exceed NFFT.  For M<NFFT,
% NFFT-M zeros are inserted in the FFT buffer (for interpolated
% zero-phase processing).  The window should be supplied in CAUSAL
% FORM.
%
% NOVERLAP is the number of samples the sections of A overlap, if
% nonnegative.  If negative, -NOVERLAP is the "hop size", i.e., the
% number of samples to advance successive windows.  (The overlap is
% the window length minus the hop size.)  The hop size is called
% NHOP below.  NOVERLAP must be less than M.
%
% If doplot is nonzero, or if there is no output argument, the
% spectrogram is displayed.
%
% When the spectrogram is displayed, it is clipped'' dbdown dB
% below its maximum magnitude.  The default clipping level is 100
% dB down.
%
% Thus, MYSPECTROGRAM splits the signal into overlapping segments of
% length M, windows each segment with the length M WINDOW vector, in
% zero-phase form, and forms the columns of B with their zero-padded,
% length NFFT discrete Fourier transforms.
%
% With no output argument B, MYSPECTROGRAM plots the dB magnitude of
% the spectrogram in the current figure, using
% IMAGESC(T,F,20*log10(ABS(B))), AXIS XY, COLORMAP(JET) so the low
% frequency content of the first portion of the signal is displayed
% in the lower left corner of the axes.
%
% Each column of B contains an estimate of the short-term,
% time-localized frequency content of the signal A.  Time increases
% linearly across the columns of B, from left to right.  Frequency
% increases linearly down the rows, starting at 0.
%
% If A is a length NX complex signal, B is returned as a complex
% matrix with NFFT rows and
%      k = floor((NX-NOVERLAP)/(length(WINDOW)-NOVERLAP))
%        = floor((NX-NOVERLAP)/NHOP)
% columns.  When A is real, only the NFFT/2+1 rows are needed when
% NFFT even, and the first (NFFT+1)/2 rows are sufficient for
% inversion when NFFT is odd.
%
% 02/04/02/jos: Created
% 07/23/08/jos: Changed name from SPECTROGRAM to MYSPECTROGRAM

if nargin<7, dbdown=100; end
if nargin<6, doplot=0; end
if nargin<5, noverlap=256; end
if nargin<4, window=hamming(512); end
if nargin<3, fs=1; end
if nargin<2, nfft=2048; end

x = x(:); % make sure it's a column

M = length(window);
if (M<2) error(...
'myspectrogram: Expect complete window, not just its length');
end;
if (M<2) error(...
'myspectrogram: Expect complete window, not just its length');
end;
if length(x)<M % zero-pad to fill a window:
x = [x;zeros(M-length(x),1)];
end;
Modd = mod(M,2); % 0 if M even, 1 if odd
Mo2 = (M-Modd)/2;
w = window(:); % Make sure it's a column

if noverlap<0
nhop = - noverlap;
noverlap = M-nhop;
else
nhop = M-noverlap;
end

nx = length(x);
%nframes = 1+floor((nx-noverlap)/nhop);
nframes = 1+ceil(nx/nhop);

X = zeros(nfft,nframes); % allocate output spectrogram

zp = zeros(nfft-M,1); % zero-padding for each FFT
xframe = zeros(M,1);
xoff = 0 - Mo2; % input time offset = half a frame
for m=1:nframes
%  M,Mo2,xoff,nhop
if xoff<0
xframe(1:xoff+M) = x(1:xoff+M); % partial input data frame
else
if xoff+M > nx
xframe = [x(xoff+1:nx);zeros(xoff+M-nx,1)];
else
xframe = x(xoff+1:xoff+M); % input data frame
end
end
xw = w .* xframe; % Apply window
xwzp = [xw(Mo2+1:M);zp;xw(1:Mo2)];
X(:,m) = fft(xwzp);
xoff = xoff + nhop; % advance input offset by hop size
end

if (nargout==0) | doplot
t = (0:nframes-1)*nhop/fs;
f = 0.001*(0:nfft-1)*fs/nfft;
Xdb = 20*log10(abs(X));
Xmax = max(max(Xdb));
% Clip lower limit to -dbdown dB so nulls don't dominate:
clipvals = [Xmax-dbdown,Xmax];
imagesc(t,f,Xdb,clipvals);
% grid;
axis('xy');
colormap(jet);
xlabel('Time (sec)');
ylabel('Freq (kHz)');
end


### Matlab listing: invmyspectrogram.m

function a = invmyspectrogram(b,hop)
%INVMYSPECTROGRAM Resynthesize a signal from its spectrogram.
%   A = INVMYSPECTROGRAM(B,NHOP)
%   B = complex array of STFT values as generated by MYSPECTROGRAM.
%   The number of rows of B is taken to be the FFT size, NFFT.
%   INVMYSPECTROGRAM resynthesizes A by inverting each frame of the
%   FFT in B, and overlap-adding them to the output array A.
%   NHOP is the overlap-add offset between successive IFFT frames.
%

[nfft,nframes] = size(b);

No2 = nfft/2; % nfft assumed even
a = zeros(1, nfft+(nframes-1)*hop);
xoff = 0 - No2; % output time offset = half of FFT size
for col = 1:nframes
fftframe = b(:,col);
xzp = ifft(fftframe);
% xzp = real(xzp); % if signal known to be real
x = [xzp(nfft-No2+1:nfft); xzp(1:No2)];
if xoff<0 % FFT's "negative-time indices" are out of range
ix = 1:xoff+nfft;
a(ix) = a(ix) + x(1-xoff:nfft)'; % partial frames out
else
ix = xoff+1:xoff+nfft;
a(ix) = a(ix) + x';  % overlap-add reconstruction
end
xoff = xoff + hop;
end


### Matlab listing: testmyspectrogram.m

% testmyspectrogram.m (tested July 2008 in Octave 3.0)

fs=22050;	% sampling frequency
D=1;		% test signal duration in seconds
L = ceil(fs*D)+1; % signal duration in samples
n = 0:L-1;      % discrete-time axis (samples)
t = n/fs;       % discrete-time axis (sec)
%c = ones(1,L); % dc test (good first COLA check)
c = chirp(t,0,D,fs/2); % sine sweep from 0 Hz to fs/2 Hz
windur = 0.01;  % window length in sec
M = 2*round((windur*fs-1)/2); % win length in samples (even)
%M = 2*round((windur*fs-1)/2)+1; % win length in samples (odd)
Modd = mod(M,2);
hop = (M-Modd)/2;

if Modd
w = 0.54 - 0.46 * cos(2*pi*(0:M-1)'/(M-1)); % causal Hamming window
w(1)=w(1)/2;  w(M)=w(M)/2;  % modify for constant-overlap-add
else
w = 0.54 - 0.46 * cos(2*pi*(0:M-1)'/M); % causal Hamming window
end
w = w/(2*0.54); % scale for unity overlap-add
nfft = 2^(3+nextpow2(M));

% For zero-phase processing, the signal should have at least
% half a window of leading and trailing zeros
zp = zeros(1,(M+Modd)/2);
x = [zp,c,zp];

figure(1); clf;

X = myspectrogram(x,nfft,fs,w,-hop,1);
%or myspectrogram(x,nfft,fs,w,M-hop,1);

title('Spectrogram of test signal');
% print -depsc 'testmyspectrogram.eps'; % write plot to disk

%xh = invmyspectrogram(X,hop,8);
xh = invmyspectrogram(X,hop);
xh = real(xh); % imaginary part is round-off noise since x was real
xmxh = x - xh(1:length(x)); % Have extra zeros at end of xh
err=norm(xmxh)/norm(x);
disp(sprintf('L2 norm of relative reconstruction error  = %g',err));
% I observe 8E-16 for both odd and even win length cases - jos

figure(2); clf;
%n1 = round(L/8); n2 = n1+100;
n1 = 1; n2 = n1+3000;
pn = n1:n2; % plot indices
%plot(n(pn),[x(pn)',xh(pn)']);
%legend('original','resynthesized');
%title('Original and resynthesized test signal');
plot(n(pn),x(pn)-xh(pn));
title('Original minus resynthesized test signal');

figure(3); clf;
Xh=myspectrogram(xh,nfft,fs,w,-hop,1);
title('Spectrogram of resynthesized test signal');


## Matlab for Unwrapping Spectral Phase

When spectral phase is processed, it is often necessary to unwrap the phase to make it a continuous'' function. Below is a simple matlab function for this purpose. It is based on the assumption that phase jumps by more than radians must have been wrapped''. That is, multiples of are added or subtracted so that the phase changes by no more than from one spectral bin to the next. Bin 0 (corresponding to dc) is arbitrarily chosen as unwrapped'' and used as a starting point for the unwrapping algorithm.

### Matlab listing: unwrap.m

function up = unwrap(p)
%UNWRAP unwrap phase

N = length(p);
up = zeros(size(p));
pm1 = p(1);
up(1) = pm1;
po = 0;
thr = pi - eps;
pi2 = 2*pi;
for i=2:N
cp = p(i) + po;
dp = cp-pm1;
pm1 = cp;
if dp>thr
while dp>thr
po = po - pi2
dp = dp - pi2;
end
end
if dp<-thr
while dp<-thr
po = po + pi2
dp = dp + pi2;
end
end
cp = p(i) + po;
pm1 = cp;
up(i) = cp;
end


## Non-Parametric Frequency Warping

 function [si] = specinterp(spec,indices); %SPECINTERP % [si] = specinterp(spec,indices); % % Returns spectrum sampled at indices (from 1). % Assumes a causal rectangular window was used. % The spec array should be the WHOLE spectrum, % not just 0 to half the sampling rate. % An "index" is a "bin number" + 1. % EXAMPLE: % N = 128; % x = sin(2*pi*0.1*[0:N-1]); % X = fft(x); % Xi = specinterp(X,[1:0.5:N]); % upsample by 2 % xi = ifft(x); % should now see 2x zero-padding N = length(spec); ibins = indices - 1; wki = ibins*2*pi/N; M = length(indices); si = zeros(1,M); wk = [0:N-1]*2*pi/N; for i=1:M index = indices(i); ri = round(index); if abs(index - ri) < 2*eps si(i) = spec(ri); else w = wki(i); % ideal interp kernel: wts = (1-exp(j*(wk-w)*N)) ./ (N*(1-exp(j*(wk-w)))); si(i) = sum(wts .* spec); end end 

Note that resampling a spectrum using the ideal interpolation kernel requires operations, This computational burden can be reduced in a number of ways:

• A window other than the rectangular window can be applied to the data frame, so that can be used as an interpolation kernel in place of the aliased sinc function. If the window side lobes are sufficiently small, they can be neglected. An example would be set to a Hann window, with 50% overlap between frames, as commonly used in the STFT.
• In pure frequency-warping applications, windows can be used for both analysis and reconstruction, as is done in apparently all perceptual audio coding methods such as MPEG [16,273]. For example, the square root of the Hann window can be applied to the analysis frame as well as the final overlap-add frame. This scheme has the advantage of tapering any discontinuities at the frame boundary more gracefully to zero, thus reducing the audibility of artifacts.
• Specially optimized narrow-support kernels can be designed by a number of methods [72,218]. If they are constrained to be nonnegative, their square root can be used twice like the Hann window in the previous point. Asymmetric factorizations are also possible when the kernel changes sign.

## Fundamental Frequency Estimation

The f0est function requires findpeaks listed in §F.2.1. It also uses a trivial utility freqlabs defined at the end of the listing below. The blackman function (for the Blackman window) comes standard with Octave and requires the Signal Processing Toolbox in Matlab.

function [f0,fc] = f0est(sig,fs,framesize,npartials,minlevel,debug);
%F0EST  Estimate fundamental frequency F0 from spectral peaks
%
% [f0,fc] = f0est(sig,fs,framesize,npartials,minlevel);
%
% Computes fundamental frequency estimate f0 (Hz) and spectral cut-off
% frequency fc (Hz) from spectral peaks for npartials partials in
% signal sig.  The frame size used in the fft is specified in
% framesize which is rounded up to the next odd number if necessary.
% The sampling rate is passed in fs (default = 1).  Peaks are rejected
% minlevel dB below the highest peak.  fc is returned as the frequency
% (Hz) of the highest partial.  A Blackman window is used.

sig = sig(:).'; % ensure row-vector
len = length(sig);

if (nargin<2),
fs = 1;
end;

if (nargin<3),
framesize = 512;
end;

if (nargin<5),
minlevel = -60; % dB
end;

if (nargin<6),
debug = 0;
end;

if (len < framesize),
disp(sprintf('*** f0est: signal too short  for fft (%d samples)',len));
framesize = len;
end;

if mod(framesize,2)==0,
framesize = framesize - 1;
disp(sprintf('f0est: framesize -> next odd number = %d',framesize));
end;

nspec = nfft/2 + 1;
[fkHz fxlab fylab] = freqlabs(nspec,fs);
locscl = (fs/2) / nfft;		% Converts bin to freq

if (nargin<4),
npartials = framesize/2;	% i.e., no upper limit
end;

window = blackman(framesize)';

% Parameters established.
% Compute FFT.

minpeakwidth = zpadfactor*5; % 5 for generalized Blackman family
maxpeakwidth = minpeakwidth*2; % reject too much modulation/interf.

forigin = 1;
frame = [window .* sig(forigin:forigin+framesize-1), padding];
if debug>1, plot(frame); title(sprintf('Signal Frame')); end;
spec = fft(frame);
specdb = db(spec(1:nspec));
minval = max(specdb) + minlevel;
if debug, plot(fkHz,specdb);
title('Signal Frame Spectrum');
xlabel(fxlab); ylabel(fylab);
end;

[peakamps peaklocs peakwidths] = ...
findpeaks(specdb,npartials,minpeakwidth,maxpeakwidth,minval,debug);

[peaklocs,sorter] = sort(peaklocs);
amps = zeros(size(peakamps));
widths = zeros(size(peakamps));
npeaks = length(peaklocs);
for col=1:npeaks,
amps(:,col) = peakamps(:,sorter(col));
widths(:,col) = peakwidths(:,sorter(col));
end;

freqs = (peaklocs - ones(size(peaklocs))) * fs / nfft;
if npeaks>1,
fspacings = diff(freqs);
medianfspacing = median(fspacings);
avgfspacing = mean(fspacings);
else
fspacings = freqs(1);
medianfspacing = freqs(1);
avgfspacing = freqs(1);
end;

f0a = medianfspacing;
harmonic_numbers = round(freqs/f0a);

subharms = find(harmonic_numbers < 0.75);
msh = max(subharms);
if msh > 0 % delete subharmonics, dc peak, etc.
disp(sprintf(...
'*** Tossing out the following %d peaks below F0',msh));
format bank;
disp('	freqs	amps	widths:');
[freqs(1:msh)', amps(1:msh)', widths(1:msh)']
pause;
freqs = freqs(msh+1:npeaks);
amps = amps(msh+1:npeaks);
widths = widths(msh+1:npeaks);
harmonic_numbers = harmonic_numbers(msh+1:npeaks);
npeaks = npeaks - msh;
end

if debug,
format bank;

disp('	freqs	amps	widths:'); [freqs', amps', widths']
disp('partial frequency intervals:'); fspacings

bar(freqs(1:end-1),fspacings-f0a);
title('Partial Frequency Spacings minus fundamental');
ylabel('Frequency Spacing (Hz)');
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)');

disp(sprintf('Median partial frequency interval = %f',medianfspacing));
disp(sprintf('Average partial frequency interval = %f',avgfspacing));
disp(sprintf('Fundamental frequency estimate = %f',f0a));
disp(sprintf('Harmonics versus peaks:'));
[f0a*harmonic_numbers',freqs']
disp(sprintf('Relative deviation:'));
disp(sprintf('Relative deviation (%%):'));
f0a_error = 100*(freqs - f0a*harmonic_numbers)./freqs

bar(freqs,f0a_error*1200);
title('Relative Partial Frequency Deviations (measured - harmonic)');
ylabel('Cents');
xlabel('Frequency');

disp(sprintf('Saved output format:'));
nfreqs = length(freqs);
[sprintf('partial_freqs = {%f',freqs(1)), ...
sprintf(', %f',freqs(2:nfreqs)),sprintf('};')]
[sprintf('partial_numbers = {%d',harmonic_numbers(1)),...
sprintf(', %d',harmonic_numbers(2:nfreqs)),sprintf('};')]
end;

%
% Optimize fit of f0 * harmonic_numbers to measured peak frequencies.
%
R = harmonic_numbers * harmonic_numbers';
P = harmonic_numbers * freqs';
f0 = R\P;
if debug > 1,
disp('Refined F0 estimate via harmonic regression:'); f0
disp('refined harmonics versus peaks:'); [f0*harmonic_numbers',freqs']
disp('relative deviation (%%):');
f0_error=100*(f0*harmonic_numbers-freqs)./freqs
stem(f0_error);
title('Relative Harmonic Deviation: Harmonic Minus Peak Over Peak');
end;

fc = max(freqs);

specdbc = max(specdb,minval);
if debug,
ttl = 'Signal Frame Spectrum with F0 and Cut-Off Marked';
clf;
hold on;
f = fkHz * 1000;
plot(f,specdbc,'-k');
markline = [min(specdbc),max(specdbc)];
plot([f0 f0], markline);
plot([fc fc], markline);
title(ttl);
xlabel(fxlab);
ylabel(fylab);
hold off;
end;

% ----------------------------------------------------------------

function [f,fxlab,fylab] = freqlabs(nspec,fs);
%FREQLABS returns freq axis f (kHz), x label, and y label, given
%         max FFT bin number spec and sampling rate fs (in Hz)
fxlab = 'Frequency (kHz)';
fylab = 'Amplitude (dB)';
f = (fs/2000)*[0:nspec-1]/nspec; % frequency axis for spectral plots


### Test Program for F0 Estimation

The following test program generates a harmonic signal and uses f0est to determine the fundamental frequency, first with all harmonics present, and second with the fundamental suppressed by a notch filter.

% Tested using Octave 3.0.0, Aug 2008

clear all;

f0 = 440;    % true fundamental frequency
n = 1:200;   % time in samples
fs = 10000;  % sampling rate

N = length(n);
fund = sin(2*pi*f0*n/fs); % sine at fundamental frequency
npartials = 7;
sig = zeros(1,N);
for k=1:npartials
ampk = 1 / k^2; % give a natural roll-off
sig = sig + ampk * sin(2*pi*k*f0*n/fs);
end
%rmsnoise = 0.01;
rmsnoise = 0.0;
sig = sig + rmsnoise * randn(1,N); % add some noise for realism

framesize = N;
minlevel = -60; % Lowest relative partial amplitude to accept
% (-40 good with Hamming window family)
% (-60 good with Blackman window family)
debug = 0;
f0 = f0est(sig,fs,framesize,npartials,minlevel,debug)
% Trick to leave all internal f0est variables defined
% (comment-out first line of f0est.m declaring the function):
% nargin = 6; f0est;

% Notch out fundamental and repeat:
b1 = -2*cos(2*pi*f0/fs);
sig = filter([1 b1 1],1,sig);
f0 = f0est(sig,fs,framesize,npartials,minlevel,debug)

% Example output:
% f0 =  439.99
% f0 =  437.50


Next Section:
A History of Spectral Audio Signal Processing
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Bilinear Frequency-Warping for Audio Spectrum Analysis over Bark and ERB Frequency Scales