Optimization of Synthesis Oversampled Complex Filter Banks
An important issue with oversampled FIR analysis filter banks (FBs) is to determine inverse synthesis FBs, when they exist. Given any complex oversampled FIR analysis FB, we first provide an algorithm to determine whether there exists an inverse FIR synthesis system. We also provide a method to ensure the Hermitian symmetry property on the synthesis side, which is serviceable to processing real-valued signals. As an invertible analysis scheme corresponds to a redundant decomposition, there is no unique inverse FB. Given a particular solution, we parameterize the whole family of inverses through a null space projection. The resulting reduced parameter set simplifies design procedures, since the perfect reconstruction constrained optimization problem is recast as an unconstrained optimization problem. The design of optimized synthesis FBs based on time or frequency localization criteria is then investigated, using a simple yet efficient gradient algorithm.
Hybrid Floating Point Technique Yields 1.2 Gigasample Per Second 32 to 2048 point Floating Point FFT in a single FPGA
Hardware Digital Signal Processing, especially hardware targeted to FPGAs, has traditionally been done using fixed point arithmetic, mainly due to the high cost associated with implementing floating point arithmetic. That cost comes in the form of increased circuit complexity. The increase circuit complexity usually also degrades maximum clock performance. Certain applications demand the dynamic range offered by floating point hardware, and yet require the speeds and circuit density usually associated with fixed point hardware. The Fourier transform is one DSP building block that frequently requires floating point dynamic range. Textbook construction of a pipelined floating point FFT engine capable of continuous input entails dozens of floating point adders and multipliers. The complexity of those circuits quickly exceeds the resources available on a single FPGA. This paper describes a technique that is a hybrid of fixed point and floating point operations designed to significantly reduce the overhead for floating point. The results are illustrated with an FFT processor that performs 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024 and 2048 point Fourier transforms with IEEE single precision floating point inputs and outputs. The design achieves sufficient density to realize a continuous complex data rate of 1.2 Gigasamples per second data throughput using a single Virtex4-SX55-10 device.
Audio Time-Scale Modification
Audio time-scale modification is an audio effect that alters the duration of an audio signal without affecting its perceived local pitch and timbral characteristics. There are two broad categories of time-scale modification algorithms, time-domain and frequency-domain. The computationally efficient time-domain techniques produce high quality results for single pitched signals such as speech, but do not cope well with more complex signals such as polyphonic music. The less efficient frequencydomain techniques have proven to be more robust and produce high quality results for a variety of signals; however they introduce a reverberant artefact into the output. This dissertation focuses on incorporating aspects of time-domain techniques into frequency-domain techniques in an attempt to reduce the presence of the reverberant artefact and improve upon computational demands. From a review of prior work it was found that there are a number of time-domain algorithms available and that the choice of algorithm parameters varies considerably in the literature. This finding prompted an investigation into the effects of the choice of parameters and a comparison of the various techniques employed in terms of computational requirements and output quality. The investigation resulted in the derivation of an efficient and flexible parameter set for use within time-domain implementations. Of the available frequency-domain approaches the phase vocoder and timedomain/ subband techniques offer an efficiency and robustness advantage over sinusoidal modelling and iterative phase update techniques, and as such were identified as suitable candidates for the provision of a framework for further investigation. Following from this observation, improvements in the quality produced by time-domain/subband techniques are realised through the use of a bark based subband partitioning approach and effective subband synchronisation techniques. In addition, computational and output quality improvements within a phase vocoder implementation are achieved by taking advantage of a certain level of flexibility in the choice of phase within such an implementation. The phase flexibility established is used to push or pull phase values into a phase coherent state. Further improvements are realised by incorporating features of time-domain algorithms into the system in order to provide a ‘good’ initial set of phase estimates; the transition to ‘perfect’ phase coherence is significantly reduced through this scheme, thereby improving the overall output quality produced. The result is a robust and efficient time-scale modification algorithm which draws upon various aspects of a number of general approaches to time-scale modification.
Signal Processing Requirements for WiMAX (802.16e) Base Station
802.16e provides specifications for non line of sight, mobile wireless communications in the frequency range of 2-6 GHz. It is well implemented by using OFDMA as its physical layer scheme. The OFDM symbol time (sT) is to be selected depending on the channel conditions, available bandwidth and, simulations provide a means of selecting right values of sTin different channel conditions. Additionally it has been shown that certain values of sT outperform others in all conditions, thus invalidating their use. Moreover, a solution proposed by INTEL is also analyzed. One of the major requirements of OFDM is high synchronization. Detecting the timing offset of a new mobile user, entering the network, which is not time aligned using cross-correlation and ‘auto-correlation’ in time domain and cross-correlation in frequency domain at the base station has been simulated. Results point that the processing load can be significantly reduced by using frequency domain correlation of the received data or by using ‘auto-correlation’ followed by cross-correlation on localized data. The use of adaptive antenna system in 802.16e improves the system performance, where beamforming is implemented in the direction of desired user. Capon’s method and MUSIC method have been simulated to compute the direction of arrival for OFDMA uplink. A new user, while in the ranging process, transmits data with unknown time offset and unknown direction. The thesis describes the procedure to find the two unknown one after another.
Acoustic Echo Cancellation using Digital Signal Processing
Acoustic echo cancellation is a common occurrence in todays telecommunication systems. It occurs when an audio source and sink operate in full duplex mode, an example of this is a hands-free loudspeaker telephone. In this situation the received signal is output through the telephone loudspeaker (audio source), this audio signal is then reverberated through the physical environment and picked up by the systems microphone (audio sink). The effect is the return to the distant user of time delayed and attenuated images of their original speech signal. The signal interference caused by acoustic echo is distracting to both users and causes a reduction in the quality of the communication. This thesis focuses on the use of adaptive filtering techniques to reduce this unwanted echo, thus increasing communication quality. Adaptive filters are a class of filters that iteratively alter their parameters in order to minimise a function of the difference between a desired target output and their output. In the case of acoustic echo in telecommunications, the optimal output is an echoed signal that accurately emulates the unwanted echo signal. This is then used to negate the echo in the return signal. The better the adaptive filter emulates this echo, the more successful the cancellation will be. This thesis examines various techniques and algorithms of adaptive filtering, employing discrete signal processing in MATLAB. Also a real-time implementation of an adaptive echo cancellation system has been developed using the Texas Instruments TMS320C6711 DSP development kit.
A Prototype Laboratory Environment for Digital Signal Processing Using Simulink and a Texas Instrument DSP Device
Normally, when a model is designed from building blocks in Simulink, the simulation is performed within the Simulink environment. A test of the design in a real-time environment requires that source code is generated, compiled and downloaded to the target hardware. As a first attempt to bridge this software gap, this thesis describes and evaluates a prototype laboratory environment, which directly links Simulink to a Texas Instrument DSP device. The prototype system converts graphical models and makes available various real-time signal processing algorithms, such as adders, delays, FFTs, IIR filters and multipliers. Future work is to consider modification of the prototype to allow for feedback in the graphical models and to find an efficient way of handling signal processing algorithms where variable buffer lengths are required.
Introduction to Digital Signal Processing
Nice slides introducing Digital Signal Processing.
Efficient Digital Fiilters
What would you do in the following situation? Let ’ s say you are diagnosing a DSP system problem in the field. You have your trusty laptop with your development system and an emulator. You figure out that there was a problem with the system specifications and a symmetric FIR filter in the software won ’ t do the job; it needs reduced passband ripple, or maybe more stopband attenuation. You then realize you don ’ t have any filter design software on the laptop, and the customer is getting angry. The answer is easy: You can take the existing filter and sharpen it. Simply stated, filter sharpening is a technique for creating a new filter from an old one  –  . While the technique is almost 30 years old, it is not generally known by DSP engineers nor is it mentioned in most DSP textbooks.
Interaction with Sound and Pre-Recorded Music: Novel Interfaces and Use Patterns
Computers are changing the way sound and recorded music are listened to and used. The use of computers to playback music makes it possible to change and adapt music to different usage situations in ways that were not possible with analog sound equipment. In this thesis, interaction with pre-recorded music is investigated using prototypes and user studies. First, different interfaces for browsing music on consumer or mobile devices were compared. It was found that the choice of input controller, mapping and auditory feedback influences how the music was searched and how the interfaces were perceived. Search performance was not affected by the tested interfaces. Based on this study, several ideas for the future design of music browsing interfaces were proposed. Indications that search time depends linearly on distance to target were observed and examined in a related study where a movement time model for searching in a text document using scrolling was developed. Second, work practices of professional disc jockeys (DJs) were studied and a new design for digital DJing was proposed and tested. Strong indications were found that the use of beat information could reduce the DJ’s cognitive workload while maintaining flexibility during the musical performance. A system for automatic beat extraction was designed based on an evaluation of a number of perceptually important parameters extracted from audio signals. Finally, auditory feedback in pen-gesture interfaces was investigated through a series of informal and formal experiments. The experiments point to several general rules of auditory feedback in pen-gesture interfaces: a few simple functions are easy to achieve, gaining further performance and learning advantage is difficult, the gesture set and its computerized recognizer can be designed to minimize visual dependence, and positive emotional or aesthetic response can be achieved using musical auditory feedback.
Multirate Signal Processing Concepts in Digital Communications
Multirate systems are building blocks commonly used in digital signal processing (DSP). Their function is to alter the rate of the discrete-time signals, by adding or deleting a portion of the signal samples. They are essential in various standard signal processing techniques such as signal analysis, denoising, compression and so forth. During the last decade, however, they have increasingly found applications in new and emerging areas of signal processing, as well as in several neighboring disciplines such as digital communications. The main contribution of this thesis is aimed towards a better understanding of multirate systems and their use in modern communication systems. To this end, we first study a property of linear systems appearing in certain multirate structures. This property is called biorthogonal partnership and represents a terminology introduced recently to address a need for a descriptive term for such class of filters. In the thesis we especially focus on the extensions of this simple idea to the case of vector signals (MIMO biorthogonal partners) and to accommodate for nonintegral decimation ratios (fractional biorthogonal partners). The main results developed here study the properties of biorthogonal partners, e.g., the conditions for the existence of stable and of finite impulse response (FIR) partners. In this context we develop the parameterization of FIR solutions, which makes the search for the best partner in a given application analytically tractable. This proves very useful in their central application, namely, channel equalization in digital communications with signal oversampling at the receiver. A good channel equalizer in this context is one that helps neutralize the distortion on the signal introduced by the channel propagation but not at the expense of amplifying the channel noise. In the second part of the thesis, we focus on another class of multirate systems, used at the transmitter side in order to introduce redundancy in the data stream. This redundancy generally serves to facilitate the equalization process by forcing certain structure on the transmitted signal. We first consider the transmission systems that introduce the redundancy in the form of a cyclic prefix. The examples of such systems include the discrete multitone (DMT) and the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. We study the signal precoding in such systems, aimed at improving the performance by minimizing the noise power at the receiver. We also consider a different class of communication systems with signal redundancy, namely, the multiuser systems based on code division multiple access (CDMA). We specifically focus on the special class of CDMA systems called `a mutually orthogonal usercode receiver' (AMOUR). We show how to find the best equalizer from the class of zero-forcing solutions in such systems, and then increase the size of this class by employing alternative sampling strategies at the receiver.
An Introduction To Compressive Sampling
This article surveys the theory of compressive sensing, also known as compressed sensing or CS, a novel sensing/sampling paradigm that goes against the common wisdom in data acquisition.
STUDY OF DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES
Modulation is the process of facilitating the transfer of information over a medium. Typically the objective of a digital communication system is to transport digital data between two or more nodes. In radio communications this is usually achieved by adjusting a physical characteristic of a sinusoidal carrier, either the frequency, phase, amplitude or a combination thereof . This is performed in real systems with a modulator at the transmitting end to impose the physical change to the carrier and a demodulator at the receiving end to detect the resultant modulation on reception. Hence, modulation can be objectively defined as the process of converting information so that it can be successfully sent through a medium. This thesis deals with the current digital modulation techniques used in industry. Also, the thesis examines the qualitative and quantitative criteria used in selection of one modulation technique over the other. All the experiments, and realted data collected were obtained using MATLAB and SIMULINK
Closing the gap: CPU and FPGA Trends in sustainable floating-point BLAS performance
Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have long been an attractive alternative to microprocessors for computing tasks — as long as floating-point arithmetic is not required. Fueled by the advance of Moore’s Law, FPGAs are rapidly reaching sufficient densities to enhance peak floating-point performance as well. The question, however, is how much of this peak performance can be sustained. This paper examines three of the basic linear algebra subroutine (BLAS) functions: vector dot product, matrix-vector multiply, and matrix multiply. A comparison of microprocessors, FPGAs, and Reconfigurable Computing platforms is performed for each operation. The analysis highlights the amount of memory bandwidth and internal storage needed to sustain peak performance with FPGAs. This analysis considers the historical context of the last six years and is extrapolated for the next six years.
Biosignal processing challenges in emotion recognition for adaptive learning
User-centered computer based learning is an emerging field of interdisciplinary research. Research in diverse areas such as psychology, computer science, neuroscience and signal processing is making contributions to take this field to the next level. Learning systems built using contributions from these fields could be used in actual training and education instead of just laboratory proof-of-concept. One of the important advances in this research is the detection and assessment of the cognitive and emotional state of the learner using such systems. This capability moves development beyond the use of traditional user performance metrics to include system intelligence measures that are based on current theories in neuroscience. These advances are of paramount importance in the success and wide spread use of learning systems that are automated and intelligent. Emotion is considered an important aspect of how learning occurs, and yet estimating it and making adaptive adjustments are not part of most learning systems. In this research we focus on one specific aspect of constructing an adaptive and intelligent learning system, that is, estimation of the emotion of the learner as he/she is using the automated training system. The challenge starts with the definition of the emotion and the utility of it in human life. The next challenge is to measure the co-varying factors of the emotions in a non-invasive way, and find consistent features from these measures that are valid across wide population. In this research we use four physiological sensors that are non-invasive, and establish a methodology of utilizing the data from these sensors using different signal processing tools. A validated set of visual stimuli used worldwide in the research of emotion and attention, called International Affective Picture System (IAPS), is used. A dataset is collected from the sensors in an experiment designed to elicit emotions from these validated visual stimuli. We describe a novel wavelet method to calculate hemispheric asymmetry metric using electroencephalography data. This method is tested against typically used power spectral density method. We show overall improvement in accuracy in classifying specific emotions using the novel method. We also show distinctions between different discrete emotions from the autonomic nervous system activity using electrocardiography, electrodermal activity and pupil diameter changes. Findings from different features from these sensors are used to give guidelines to use each of the individual sensors in the adaptive learning environment.
A Multimedia DSP processor design
This Master Thesis presents the design of the core of a fixed point general purpose multimedia DSP processor (MDSP) and its instruction set. This processor employs parallel processing techniques and specialized addressing models to speed up the processing of multimedia applications. The MDSP has a dual MAC structure with one enhanced MAC that provides a SIMD, Single Instruction Multiple Data, unit consisting of four parallel data paths that are optimized for accelerating multimedia applications. The SIMD unit performs four multimedia-oriented 16-bit operations every clock cycle. This accelerates computationally intensive procedures such as video and audio decoding. The MDSP uses a memory bank of four memories to provide multiple accesses of source data each clock cycle.
Automatic Parallel Memory Address Generation for Parallel DSP Computing
The concept of Parallel Vector (scratch pad) Memories (PVM) was introduced as one solution for Parallel Computing in DSP, which can provides parallel memory addressing efficiently with minimum latency. The parallel programming more efficient by using the parallel addressing generator for parallel vector memory (PVM) proposed in this thesis. However, without hiding complexities by cache, the cost of programming is high. To minimize the programming cost, automatic parallel memory address generation is needed to hide the complexities of memory access. This thesis investigates methods for implementing conflict-free vector addressing algorithms on a parallel hardware structure. In particular, match vector addressing requirements extracted from the behaviour model to a prepared parallel memory addressing template, in order to supply data in parallel from the main memory to the on-chip vector memory. According to the template and usage of the main and on-chip parallel vector memory, models for data pre-allocation and permutation in scratch pad memories of ASIP can be decided and configured. By exposing the parallel memory access of source code, the memory access flow graph (MFG) will be generated. Then MFG will be used combined with hardware information to match templates in the template library. When it is matched with one template, suited permutation equation will be gained, and the permutation table that include target addresses for data pre-allocation and permutation is created. Thus it is possible to automatically generate memory address for parallel memory accesses. A tool for achieving the goal mentioned above is created, Permutator, which is implemented in C++ combined with XML. Memory access coding template is selected, as a result that permutation formulas are specified. And then PVM address table could be generated to make the data pre-allocation, so that efficient parallel memory access is possible. The result shows that the memory access complexities is hiden by using Permutator, so that the programming cost is reduced.It works well in the context that each algorithm with its related hardware information is corresponding to a template case, so that extra memory cost is eliminated.
Voice Codec for Floating Point Processor
As part of an ongoing project at the department of electrical engineering, ISY, at Linköping University, a voice decoder using floating point formats has been the focus of this master thesis. Previous work has been done developing an mp3-decoder using the floating point formats. All is expected to be implemented on a single DSP.The ever present desire to make things smaller, more efficient and less power consuming are the main reasons for this master thesis regarding the use of a floating point format instead of the traditional integer format in a GSM codec. The idea with the low precision floating point format is to be able to reduce the size of the memory. This in turn reduces the size of the total chip area needed and also decreases the power consumption.One main question is if this can be done with the floating point format without losing too much sound quality of the speech. When using the integer format, one can represent every value in the range depending on how many bits are being used. When using a floating point format you can represent larger values using fewer bits compared to the integer format but you lose representation of some values and have to round the values off.From the tests that have been made with the decoder during this thesis, it has been found that the audible difference between the two formats is very small and can hardly be heard, if at all. The rounding seems to have very little effect on the quality of the sound and the implementation of the codec has succeeded in reproducing similar sound quality to the GSM standard decoder.
Algorithm Adaptation and Optimization of a Novel DSP Vector Co-processor
The Division of Computer Engineering at Linköping's university is currently researching the possibility to create a highly parallel DSP platform, that can keep up with the computational needs of upcoming standards for various applications, at low cost and low power consumption. The architecture is called ePUMA and it combines a general RISC DSP master processor with eight SIMD co-processors on a single chip. The master processor will act as the main processor for general tasks and execution control, while the co-processors will accelerate computing intensive and parallel DSP kernels.This thesis investigates the performance potential of the co-processors by implementing matrix algebra kernels for QR decomposition, LU decomposition, matrix determinant and matrix inverse, that run on a single co-processor. The kernels will then be evaluated to find possible problems with the co-processors' microarchitecture and suggest solutions to the problems that might exist. The evaluation shows that the performance potential is very good, but a few problems have been identified, that causes significant overhead in the kernels. Pipeline mismatches, that occurs due to different pipeline lengths for different instructions, causes pipeline hazards and the current solution to this, doesn't allow effective use of the pipeline. In some cases, the single port memories will cause bottlenecks, but the thesis suggests that the situation could be greatly improved by using buffered memory write-back. Also, the lack of register forwarding makes kernels with many data dependencies run unnecessarily slow.
DSP Memory Management in a Third Generation High Performance Base Station
Most of the tasks in a mobile cellular network base station are performed with programmable digital signal processors. Their memory spaces and management features are very limited. The buffering requirements in the base station can have large instantaneous variations during the simultaneous transmission of burst' data on multiple channels to multiple users. In particular the high bit-rates of the Wideband Code Division Multiple Access data transfer evolution High Speed Downlink Packet Access create very high demands for buffering. The fragmentation of the buffer memory is a threat. It causes a gradual decrease in performance, which is critical in a long running process like the base station. The amount of fragmentation is different with different memory management methods. In this work the features and applicability of different memory management methods for signal processors used in the base stations of third generation cellular networks have been studied. Software based memory management includes a high amount of conditional branches. The signal processor, which is optimized for highly parallel sequential computing, executes conditional branches very badly when compared to microcontrollers and general-purpose processors. The memory management methods are first studied in theory and then experimentally. In the experiments two different memory management methods were analyzed. The memory managers were loaded with a synthetic workload program that simulates multi-user high bit-rate data transmissions in the base station. The performances of the memory managers were measured in terms of fragmentation, execution time and memory utilization. The experiments confirmed the information gained from the theoretical studies that different memory management methods are usually optimized for a certain feature. The experiments showed that a simple method is fast to execute and works well with small and intermediate loads. When the load is increased the performance decreases. The second, more complex, measured method was found to require more computing, but to be capable of using the memory space assigned to it more effectively.
Auditory System for a Mobile Robot
The auditory system of living creatures provides useful information about the world, such as the location and interpretation of sound sources. For humans, it means to be able to focus one's attention on events, such as a phone ringing, a vehicle honking, a person taking, etc. For those who do not suffer from hearing impairments, it is hard to imagine a day without being able to hear, especially in a very dynamic and unpredictable world. Mobile robots would also benefit greatly from having auditory capabilities. In this thesis, we propose an artificial auditory system that gives a robot the ability to locate and track sounds, as well as to separate simultaneous sound sources and recognising simultaneous speech. We demonstrate that it is possible to implement these capabilities using an array of microphones, without trying to imitate the human auditory system. The sound source localisation and tracking algorithm uses a steered beamformer to locate sources, which are then tracked using a multi-source particle filter. Separation of simultaneous sound sources is achieved using a variant of the Geometric Source Separation (GSS) algorithm, combined with a multisource post-filter that further reduces noise, interference and reverberation. Speech recognition is performed on separated sources, either directly or by using Missing Feature Theory (MFT) to estimate the reliability of the speech features. The results obtained show that it is possible to track up to four simultaneous sound sources, even in noisy and reverberant environments. Real-time control of the robot following a sound source is also demonstrated. The sound source separation approach we propose is able to achieve a 13.7 dB improvement in signal-to-noise ratio compared to a single microphone when three speakers are present. In these conditions, the system demonstrates more than 80% accuracy on digit recognition, higher than most human listeners could obtain in our small case study when recognising only one of these sources. All these new capabilities will allow humans to interact more naturally with a mobile robot in real life settings.