## Understanding and Relating E_{b}/N_{o}, SNR, and other Power Efficiency Metrics

●8 comments Introduction Evaluating the performance of communication systems, and wireless systems in particular, usually involves quantifying some performance metric as a function of Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) or some similar measurement. Many systems...

## Python scipy.signal IIR Filter Design

●2 commentsIntroduction The following is an introduction on how to design an infinite impulse response (IIR) filters using the Python scipy.signal package. This post, mainly, covers how to use the scipy.signal package and is not a thorough...

## Python number crunching faster? Part I

Everyone has their favorite computing platform, regardless if it is Matlab, Octave, Scilab, Mathematica, Mathcad, etc. I have been using Python and the common numerical and scientific packages available. Personally, I have found this...

## Bank-switched Farrow resampler

Bank-switched Farrow resampler Summary A modification of the Farrow structure with reduced computational complexity.Compared to a conventional design, the impulse response is broken into a higher number of segments. Interpolation accuracy is...

## A Fixed-Point Introduction by Example

●9 commentsIntroduction The finite-word representation of fractional numbers is known as fixed-point. Fixed-point is an interpretation of a 2's compliment number usually signed but not limited to sign representation. It...

## Discrete Wavelet Transform Filter Bank Implementation (part 2)

●1 commentFollowing the previous blog entry: http://www.dsprelated.com/showarticle/115.php Difference between DWT and DWPT Before getting to the equivalent filter obtention, I first want to talk about the difference between DWT(Discrete Wavelet...

## Discrete Wavelet Transform Filter Bank Implementation (part 1)

●1 commentUPDATE: Added graphs and code to explain the frequency division of the branches The focus of this article is to briefly explain an implementation of this transform and several filter bank forms. Theoretical information about DWT can be found...

## Music/Audio Signal Processing

●4 commentsGreetings,This is my blog from the point of view of a music/audio DSP research engineer / educator. It is informal and largely nontechnical because nearly everything I have to say about signal processing is (or will be) somewhere in my four-book...

## Frequency Dependence in Free Space Propagation

●1 commentIntroductionIt seems to be fairly common knowledge, even among practicing professionals, that the efficiency of propagation of wireless signals is frequency dependent. Generally it is believed that lower frequencies are desirable since pathloss...

## Pulse Shaping in Single-Carrier Communication Systems

●4 commentsSome common conceptual hurdles for beginning communications engineers have to do with "Pulse Shaping" or the closely-related, even synonymous, topics of "matched filtering", "Nyquist filtering", "Nyquist pulse", "pulse filtering", "spectral...

## Exponential Smoothing with a Wrinkle

Introduction This is an article to hopefully give a better understanding to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) by providing a set of preprocessing filters to improve the resolution of the DFT. Because of the exponential nature of...

## A Free DSP Laboratory

Getting Started In Audio DSPImagine you're starting out studying DSP and your particular interest is audio. Wouldn't it be nice to have access to some audio signals and the tools to analyze and modify them? In the old days, a laboratory like this...

## The Number 9, Not So Magic After All

This blog is not about signal processing. Rather, it discusses an interesting topic in number theory, the magic of the number 9. As such, this blog is for people who are charmed by the behavior and properties of numbers. For decades I've thought...

## DFT Bin Value Formulas for Pure Complex Tones

Introduction This is an article to hopefully give a better understanding to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) by deriving an analytical formula for the DFT of pure complex tones and an alternative variation. It is basically a parallel...

## Discrete-Time PLLs, Part 1: Basics

●2 commentsIn this series of tutorials on discrete-time PLLs we will be focusing on Phase-Locked Loops that can be implemented in discrete-time signal proessors such as FPGAs, DSPs and of course, MATLAB.

## Python number crunching faster? Part I

Everyone has their favorite computing platform, regardless if it is Matlab, Octave, Scilab, Mathematica, Mathcad, etc. I have been using Python and the common numerical and scientific packages available. Personally, I have found this...

## New Comments System (please help me test it)

I thought it would take me a day or two to implement, it took almost two weeks...But here it is, the new comments systems for blogs, heavily inspired by the forum system I developed earlier this year. Which means that:You can easily add...

## Discrete Wavelet Transform Filter Bank Implementation (part 2)

●1 commentFollowing the previous blog entry: http://www.dsprelated.com/showarticle/115.php Difference between DWT and DWPT Before getting to the equivalent filter obtention, I first want to talk about the difference between DWT(Discrete Wavelet...

## Ten Little Algorithms, Part 2: The Single-Pole Low-Pass Filter

●1 commentOther articles in this series: Part 1: Russian Peasant Multiplication Part 2: The Single-Pole Low-Pass Filter Part 3: Welford’s Method (And Friends) Part 4: Topological Sort I’m writing this article in a room with a bunch of...

## A Useful Source of Signal Processing Information

I just discovered a useful web-based source of signal processing information that was new to me. I thought I'd share what I learned with the subscribers here on DSPRelated.com. The Home page of the web site that I found doesn't look at...