## A Prototype Laboratory Environment for Digital Signal Processing Using Simulink and a Texas Instrument DSP Device

Normally, when a model is designed from building blocks in Simulink, the simulation is performed within the Simulink environment. A test of the design in a real-time environment requires that source code is generated, compiled and downloaded to the target hardware. As a first attempt to bridge this software gap, this thesis describes and evaluates a prototype laboratory environment, which directly links Simulink to a Texas Instrument DSP device. The prototype system converts graphical models and makes available various real-time signal processing algorithms, such as adders, delays, FFTs, IIR filters and multipliers. Future work is to consider modification of the prototype to allow for feedback in the graphical models and to find an efficient way of handling signal processing algorithms where variable buffer lengths are required.

## A DGPS/Radiobeacon Receiver for Minimum Shift Keying with Soft Decision Capabilities

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is now in operation, and many improvements to its performance are being sought. One such improvement is Differential GPS (DGPS), where known errors in the GPS broadcast are identified and the corrections broadcast to the end user. One implementation of DGPS being considered is the use of coastal marine radio direction finding (RDF) radiobeacons in the 285-325kHz band as transmitters for the DGPS broadcast. The normal RDF beacon signal consists of a continuous carrier on a one kilohertz boundary plus a Morse-code identification signal 1025Hz above the carrier. In the DGPS/radiobeacon implementation proposed for the US coastal regions, the differential data link signal uses minimum shift keying (MSK) at a data rate of 25, 50, 100, 200 or 400 baud (the exact baud rat has not yet been decided). This MSK signal is centered between the RDF beacon carrier and identification signal. At the frequencies that these radiobeacons are operated, the prevailing atmospheric noise is both non-Gaussian and very strong. This noise characteristic makes the design of a long-range data link difficult. One solution that has been proposed is the use of forward error correction (FEC) coding of the data. The performance of FEC decoders can be improved by the used of a soft decision receiver, which delivers both bit decisions and information about the validity of the bit decisions. This work describes the design of a radio receiver for DGPS/Radiobeacon servics which is capable of reception of 400 baud MSK in the DGPS/Radiobeacon band. The receiver is designed to be easily augmented to provide soft decisions and easily modified to recieve MSK at data rates of 25 to 400 baud. The radio is a microprocessor controlled dual conversion superheterodyne with an audio frequency of 1kHz. The demodulator runs on the same microprocessor that controls the radio. The weak-signal performance of the demodulator is very good: the Eb/No vs. bit error rate performance of the demodulator is only a couple of dB worse than the theoretical performance of differential phase-shift keying. The radio has a noise floor of -114dBm referenced to it's 500Hz wide audio bandwidth and a 3rd order intermodulation intercept of +7dBm for a dynamic range of 83dB. This work concludes with a thumbnail analysis of the operations needed to implement a soft bit decision estimator, and some suggestions for the implementation of said soft bit decision estimator.

## IMPLEMENTATION OF PERIODOGRAM SMOOTHING OF NOISYIMPLEMENTATION OF PERIODOGRAM SMOOTHING OF NOISY SIGNALS USING TMS320C6713 DSK

Periodogram Smoothing is a technique of power spectrum estimation. The discrete Fourier transform of a digital signal simply resolves the frequency components. The algorithm is implemented on Texas Instruments’ TMS320C6713 DSP Starter Kit (DSK). This is a 32-bit floating-point digital signal processor running at 225 MHz. The programs are basically written in the C programming language. However, those sections of code which are time-critical and memory-critical are written in assembly language of C6713. A MATLAB™ graphical user interface is also provided. The MATLAB™ program calls C programs loaded in Code Composer Studio (CCS). The C programs in turn call the assembly programs when required.

## Implementing IS-95, the CDMA Standard, on TMS320C6201 DSP

IS-95 is the present U.S. 2nd generation CDMA standard. Currently, the 2nd generation CDMA phones are produced by Qualcomm. Texas Instruments (TI) has ASIC design for Viterbi Decoder on C54x. Several of the components in the forward link process are also implemented in hardware. However, having to design a specific hardware for a particular application is expensive and time consuming. Thus, the possibility of the alternative implementations is of great interest to both customers and TI itself. This research has achieved in successful implementation of IS-95 entirely in software on TI fixed-point DSP TMS320C6201, and met the real time constraint. IS-95 system, the industrial standard for CDMA, is a very complicated system and extremely computationally demanding. The transmission rate for an IS-95 system is 1.2288 Mcps. This research project includes all the major components of the demodulation process for the forward link system: PN Descrambling, Walsh Despreading, Phase Correction & Maximal Ratio Combining, Deinterleaver, Digital Automatic Gain Control, and Viterbi Deccc:r. The entire demodulation process is done completely in C. That makes it a very attractive alternative implementation in the future applications. It is well known that ASIC design is not only expensive and but also time consuming, programming in assembly is easier and cheaper, but programming in C is a much easier and efficient way out, in particular, for general computer engineers. During the whole process, efforts have been devoted on developing various specific techniques to optimize the design for all the components involved. These developments are successfully achieved by making the best use of the following techniques: to simplify the algorithms first before programming, to look for regularity in the problem, to work toward the Compiler's full efficiency, and to use C intrinsics whenever possible. All these attributes together make the implementation scheme great for DSP applications. The benchmark results compare very well to the TI-internal hand scheduled assembly performance of the same type of decoders. The estimated percentage usage of all the components (excluding PN) is only 21.18% of the total CPU cycles available (4,000 K), which is very efficient and impressive.

## Towards a Real-Time Implementation of Loudness Enhancement Algorithms on a Motorola DSP 56600

Most of the cellular phone companies with audio speaker capabilities focus on reducing the current drain to extend battery life. None of these companies concentrate on modifying the speech signal itself to make it sound louder in noisy listener environments without adding additional energy. Such algorithms have been described in literature by Boillot and form the backbone of this thesis. The current project focusses on taking a step towards running these algorithms in real-time on a 16-bit fixed point Motorola DSP 56600. Implementation of the autocorrelation, Levinson- Durbin, FIR, and IIR filters in assembly for the Motorola DSP 56600 has been investigated in the thesis. The challenges and alternate solutions to circumvent the challenges have been described, and experimental results have been presented. Results indicate that the modified signed LMS algorithm, which can be considered to be a blend between the LMS and signed LMS algorithms, turns out to be an elegant solution to circumvent the challenges in implementing the Levinson-Durbin recursion.

## An Advanced Signal Processing Toolkit for Java applications

The aim of this study is to examine the capability, performance, and relevance of a signal processing toolkit in Java, a programming language for Web-based applications. Due to the simplicity, ease and application use of the toolkit and with the advanced Internet technologies such as Remote Method Invocation (RMI), a spectral estimation applet has been created in the Java environment. This toolkit also provides an interactive and visual approach in understanding the various theoretical concepts of spectral estimation and shows the need to create more application applets to better understand the various concepts of signal and image processing. This study also focuses on creating a Java toolkit for embedded systems, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), embedded Java board, and supporting integer precision, and utilizing COordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm, both aimed to provide good performance in resource-limited environments. The results show a feasibility and necessity of developing a standardized Application Programming Interface (API) for the fixed-point signal processing library.

## A Two-Level Reconfigurable Cell Array for Digital Signal Processing

Reconfigurable hardware has become an attractive option for implementing digital signal processing, especially in systems that require both high performance and flexibility. This thesis presents a novel two-level reconfigurable architecture targeted toward systems with these requirements. The architecture supports a large orthogonal design space whereby designers can customize the word length, amount of parallelism, number of functional units, and functional unit connectivity to meet the needs of the application. On the upper level, algorithms are mapped onto an array of 4-bit cells and a hierarchical interconnection fabric. The interconnection structure contains a mesh of 4-bit busses for local data transfer, as well as an H-tree for communicating results between functional units. On the lower level, each cell contains a small matrix of elements that collectively implement all necessary operations. The matrix of elements has only two configurations: one optimized for mathematical functions such as multiply-accumulates, and the other optimized for memory operations. The system also contains pipeline latches to maximize clock rate and throughput. Circuit simulations indicate that the architecture achieves a clock frequency of 200 MHz in a modest 0.25-μm CMOS technology. An initial prototype of the reconfigurable cell has been fabricated in 0.5-μm CMOS and tested for functionality. The estimated execution time for a 16-bit, 256-point Fast Fourier Transform shows a speedup ranging from 1.6 to 14 compared to contemporary digital signal processors.

## Automated Accident Detection in Intersections Via Digital Audio Signal Processing

The aim of this thesis is to design a system for automated accident detection in intersections. The input to the system is a three-second audio signal. The system can be operated in two modes: two-class and multi-class. The output of the two-class system is a label of “crash” or “non-crash”. In the multi-class system, the output is the label of “crash” or various non-crash incidents including “pile drive”, “brake”, and “normal-traffic” sounds. The system designed has three main steps in processing the input audio signal. They are: feature extraction, feature optimization and classification. Five different methods of feature extraction are investigated and compared; they are based on the discrete wavelet transform, fast Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, real cepstrum transform and Mel frequency cepstral transform. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to optimize the features obtained in the feature extraction stage by linearly combining the features using different weights. Three types of statistical classifiers are investigated and compared: the nearest neighbor, nearest mean, and maximum likelihood methods. Data collected from Jackson, MS and Starkville, MS and the crash signals obtained from Texas Transportation Institute crash test facility are used to train and test the designed system. The results showed that the wavelet based feature extraction method with LDA and maximum likelihood classifier is the optimum design. This wavelet-based system is computationally inexpensive compared to other methods. The system produced classification accuracies of 95% to 100% when the input signal has a signal-to-noise-ratio of at least 0 decibels. These results show that the system is capable of effectively classifying “crash” or “non-crash” on a given input audio signal.

## Ignal Enhancement Using Time-Frequency Based Denoising

This thesis investigates and compares time and wavelet-domain denoising techniques where received signals contain broadband noise. We consider how time and wavelet-domain denoising schemes and their combinations compare in the mean squared error sense. This work applies Wiener prediction and Median filtering as they do not require any prior signal knowledge. In the wavelet-domain we use soft or hard thresholding on the detail coefficients. In addition, we explore the effect of these wavelet-domain thresholding techniques on the coefficients associated with cycle-spinning and the newly proposed recursive cycle-spinning scheme. Finally, we note that thresholding does not make an attempt to de-noise coefficients that remain after thresholding; therefore we apply time domain techniques to the remaining detail coefficients from the first level of decomposition in an attempt to de-noise them further prior to reconstruction. This thesis applies and compares these techniques using a mean squared error criterion to identify the best performing in a robust test signal environment. We find that soft thresholding with Stein’s Unbiased Risk Estimate (SURE) thresholding produces the best mean squared error results in each test case and that the addition of Wiener prediction to the first level of decomposition coefficients leads to a slightly enhanced performance. Finally, we illustrate the effects of denoising algorithms on longer data segments.

## Active control of automobile cabin noise with conventional and advanced speakers

Recently much research has focused on the control of enclosed sound fields, particularly in automobiles. Both Active Noise Control (ANC) and Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) techniques are being applied to problems stemming from power train noise and road noise (noise due to the interaction of the tires with the surface of the road). Due to the low frequency characteristics of these noise problems, large acoustic sources are required to obtain efficient control of the sound field. This creates demand in the automobile industry for compact lightweight sources. This work is concerned with the application of active control to power train noise, as well as road noise in the interior cabin of a sport utility vehicle using advanced, compact lightweight piezoelectric acoustic sources. First, a test structure approximately the same size as the automobile was built to study the principles of active noise control in a cavity. A finite element model of the cavity was created in order to optimize the positions of the error sensors and the control sources. Experimental work was performed with the optimized actuator and sensor locations in order to validate the model, and draw conclusions regarding the conditions to obtain global control of the sound field. Second, a broad-band feedforward filtered-X LMS algorithm was used to control power train noise. Preliminary power train noise tests were conducted using arrangements of four microphones and up to four commercially available speakers for control. Attenuation of seven decibel (dB) at the error sensors was measured in the 40-500 Hz frequency band. The dimensions of the zone of quiet generated by the control were measured, and show that noise reductions were obtained for a large volume surrounding the error sensors. Next, advanced speakers were implemented for active control of power train noise. The results obtained with different arrangements of these speakers were very similar to those obtained with the commercially-available speakers. These advanced speakers use piezoelectric devices to induce the displacement of a speaker membrane, which radiates sound. Their lighter weight and compact dimensions are a significant advantage over conventional speakers, for their application in automobile. Third, preliminary results were obtained for active control of road noise. The controller used an optimized set of four reference signals to control the noise at one error sensor using one control source. Two sets of tests were conducted. The first set of tests was performed on a dynamometer, which simulates the effects of the road on the tires. The second set of tests was performed on a rough road. Reduction of two to four decibel of the sound pressure level at the error sensor was obtained between 100 and 200 Hz.

## Least Squares and Adaptive Multirate Filtering

This thesis addresses the problem of estimating a random process from two observed signals sampled at different rates. The case where the low–rate observation has a higher signal–to– noise ratio than the high–rate observation is addressed. Both adaptive and non–adaptive filtering techniques are explored. For the non–adaptive case, a multirate version of the Wiener–Hopf optimal filter is used for estimation. Three forms of the filter are described. It is shown that using both observations with this filter achieves a lower mean–squared error than using either sequence alone. Furthermore, the amount of training data to solve for the filter weights is comparable to that needed when using either sequence alone. For the adaptive case, a multirate version of the LMS adaptive algorithm is developed. Both narrowband and broadband interference are removed using the algorithm in an adaptive noise cancellation scheme. The ability to remove interference at the high rate using observations taken at the low rate without the high–rate observations is demonstrated.

## Evaluation of Image Warping Algorithms for Implementation in FPGA

The target of this master thesis is to evaluate the Image Warping technique and propose a possible design for an implementation in FPGA. The Image Warping is widely used in the image processing for image correction and rectification. A DSP is a usual choice for implantation of the image processing algorithms, but to decrease a cost of the target system it was proposed to use an FPGA for implementation. In this work a different Image Warping methods was evaluated in terms of performance, produced image quality, complexity and design size. Also, considering that it is not only Image Warping algorithm which will be implemented on the target system, it was important to estimate a possible memory bandwidth used by the proposed design. The evaluation was done by implemented a C-model of the proposed design with a finite datapath to simulate hardware implementation as close as possible.

## Implementation of Elementary Functions for a Fixed Point SIMD DSP Coprocessor

This thesis is about implementing the functions for reciprocal, square root, inverse square root and logarithms on a DSP platform. A multi-core DSP platform that consists of one master processor core and several SIMD coprocessor cores is currently being designed by a team at the Computer Engineering Department of Linköping University. The SIMD coprocessors’ arithmetic logic unit (ALU) has 16 multipliers to support vector multiplication instructions. By efficiently using the 16 multipliers, it is possible to evaluate polynomials very fast. The ALU does not have (hardware) support for floating point arithmetic, so the challenge is to get good precision by using fixed point arithmetic. Precise and fast solutions to implement the mathematical functions are found by converting the fixed point input to a soft floating point format before polynomial approximation, choosing a polynomial based on an error analysis of the polynomial approximation, and using Newton-Raphson or Goldschmidt iterations to improve the precision of the polynomial approximations. Finally, suggestions are made of changes and additions to the instruction set architecture, in order to make the implementations faster, by efficiently using the currently existing hardware.

## A DGPS/Radiobeacon Receiver for Minimum Shift Keying with Soft Decision Capabilities

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is now in operation, and many improvements to its performance are being sought. One such improvement is Differential GPS (DGPS), where known errors in the GPS broadcast are identified and the corrections broadcast to the end user. One implementation of DGPS being considered is the use of coastal marine radio direction finding (RDF) radiobeacons in the 285-325kHz band as transmitters for the DGPS broadcast. The normal RDF beacon signal consists of a continuous carrier on a one kilohertz boundary plus a Morse-code identification signal 1025Hz above the carrier. In the DGPS/radiobeacon implementation proposed for the US coastal regions, the differential data link signal uses minimum shift keying (MSK) at a data rate of 25, 50, 100, 200 or 400 baud (the exact baud rat has not yet been decided). This MSK signal is centered between the RDF beacon carrier and identification signal. At the frequencies that these radiobeacons are operated, the prevailing atmospheric noise is both non-Gaussian and very strong. This noise characteristic makes the design of a long-range data link difficult. One solution that has been proposed is the use of forward error correction (FEC) coding of the data. The performance of FEC decoders can be improved by the used of a soft decision receiver, which delivers both bit decisions and information about the validity of the bit decisions. This work describes the design of a radio receiver for DGPS/Radiobeacon servics which is capable of reception of 400 baud MSK in the DGPS/Radiobeacon band. The receiver is designed to be easily augmented to provide soft decisions and easily modified to recieve MSK at data rates of 25 to 400 baud. The radio is a microprocessor controlled dual conversion superheterodyne with an audio frequency of 1kHz. The demodulator runs on the same microprocessor that controls the radio. The weak-signal performance of the demodulator is very good: the Eb/No vs. bit error rate performance of the demodulator is only a couple of dB worse than the theoretical performance of differential phase-shift keying. The radio has a noise floor of -114dBm referenced to it's 500Hz wide audio bandwidth and a 3rd order intermodulation intercept of +7dBm for a dynamic range of 83dB. This work concludes with a thumbnail analysis of the operations needed to implement a soft bit decision estimator, and some suggestions for the implementation of said soft bit decision estimator.

## Real-time Motion Picture Restoration

Through age or misuse, motion picture films can develop damage in the form of dirt or scratches which detract from the quality of the film. Removal of these artifacts is a worthwhile process as it makes the films more visually attractive and extends the life of the material. In this thesis, various methods for detecting and concealing the effects of film damage are described. Appropriate algorithms are selected for implementation of a system, based on a TMS320C80 video processor, which can remove the effects of film defects using digital processing. The restoration process operates in real-time at video frame rates (30 frames per second). Details of the software implementation of this system are presented along with results from processing damaged film material. The effects of damage are significantly reduced after processing.

## A DSP-Based Computational Engine For a Brain-Machine Interface

The fields of neurobiology and electrical engineering have come together to pursue an integrated Brain-Machine Interface (BMI). Signal processing methods are used to find mapping algorithms between motor cortex neural firing rate and hand position. This cognitive extension could help patients with quadriplegia regain some independence using a thought-controlled robot arm. Current signal processing methods to achieve realtime neural-to-motor translation involve large, multi-processor systems to produce motor control parameters. Eventually, software running in a portable signal processing system is needed to allow for the patient to have the BMI in a backpack or attached to a wheelchair. This thesis presents a DSP-Based Computational Engine for a Brain-Machine Interface. The development of a DSP Board based on the Texas Instruments TMS320VC33 DSP will be presented, along with implementations of two digital filters and their training methods: 1) FIR trained with Normalized Least Mean Square Adaptive Filter (NLMS) and 2) Recurrent Multi-Layer Perceptron (RMLP) trained with Real-Time Recurrent Learning (RTRL). The requirements of the DSP Board, component selection and integration, and control software are discussed. The DSP implementations of the digital filters are presented, along with performance and timing analysis in real data collected from an Owl Monkey at Duke University. The weights of the FIR-NLMS filter converged similarly on the DSP as they did in MATLAB. Likewise, the weights of the RMLP-RTRL filter converged similarly on the DSP as they did using the Backpropagation Through Time method in NeuroSolutions. The custom DSP Board and two digital algorithms implemented in this thesis create a starting point for an integrated, portable, real-time signal processing solution for a Brain-Machine Interface.

## Towards a Real-Time Implementation of Loudness Enhancement Algorithms on a Motorola DSP 56600

Most of the cellular phone companies with audio speaker capabilities focus on reducing the current drain to extend battery life. None of these companies concentrate on modifying the speech signal itself to make it sound louder in noisy listener environments without adding additional energy. Such algorithms have been described in literature by Boillot and form the backbone of this thesis. The current project focusses on taking a step towards running these algorithms in real-time on a 16-bit fixed point Motorola DSP 56600. Implementation of the autocorrelation, Levinson- Durbin, FIR, and IIR filters in assembly for the Motorola DSP 56600 has been investigated in the thesis. The challenges and alternate solutions to circumvent the challenges have been described, and experimental results have been presented. Results indicate that the modified signed LMS algorithm, which can be considered to be a blend between the LMS and signed LMS algorithms, turns out to be an elegant solution to circumvent the challenges in implementing the Levinson-Durbin recursion.

## Active control of automobile cabin noise with conventional and advanced speakers

Recently much research has focused on the control of enclosed sound fields, particularly in automobiles. Both Active Noise Control (ANC) and Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) techniques are being applied to problems stemming from power train noise and road noise (noise due to the interaction of the tires with the surface of the road). Due to the low frequency characteristics of these noise problems, large acoustic sources are required to obtain efficient control of the sound field. This creates demand in the automobile industry for compact lightweight sources. This work is concerned with the application of active control to power train noise, as well as road noise in the interior cabin of a sport utility vehicle using advanced, compact lightweight piezoelectric acoustic sources. First, a test structure approximately the same size as the automobile was built to study the principles of active noise control in a cavity. A finite element model of the cavity was created in order to optimize the positions of the error sensors and the control sources. Experimental work was performed with the optimized actuator and sensor locations in order to validate the model, and draw conclusions regarding the conditions to obtain global control of the sound field. Second, a broad-band feedforward filtered-X LMS algorithm was used to control power train noise. Preliminary power train noise tests were conducted using arrangements of four microphones and up to four commercially available speakers for control. Attenuation of seven decibel (dB) at the error sensors was measured in the 40-500 Hz frequency band. The dimensions of the zone of quiet generated by the control were measured, and show that noise reductions were obtained for a large volume surrounding the error sensors. Next, advanced speakers were implemented for active control of power train noise. The results obtained with different arrangements of these speakers were very similar to those obtained with the commercially-available speakers. These advanced speakers use piezoelectric devices to induce the displacement of a speaker membrane, which radiates sound. Their lighter weight and compact dimensions are a significant advantage over conventional speakers, for their application in automobile. Third, preliminary results were obtained for active control of road noise. The controller used an optimized set of four reference signals to control the noise at one error sensor using one control source. Two sets of tests were conducted. The first set of tests was performed on a dynamometer, which simulates the effects of the road on the tires. The second set of tests was performed on a rough road. Reduction of two to four decibel of the sound pressure level at the error sensor was obtained between 100 and 200 Hz.

## Orthogonal Adaptive Digital Filters with Applications to Acoustic System Identification

The Transform-Domain LMS Algorithm (Narayan, 1983) is studied in the context of an acoustic system identification problem. The power estimator in this two-stage digital filter is shown to affect the achievable rates and depths of convergence significantly. Preferred values for the two tracking parameters, $\beta$ and $\mu,$ are determined. Dynamic Step-size Initialization is proposed to improve early convergence by accelerating the rate at which true power measurements replace (arbitrary) initial values. Later, linear estimators are shown to be sub-optimal, particularly where the spectral distribution of the reference changes rapidly. A simple non-linear Peak Window Power Estimator which eliminates these problems is described. It will be shown to improve the tracking rates and misadjustment simultaneously. The benefits of these methods are demonstrated using FIR sequences representative of typical acoustic environments and using recordings from a commercial telephone set. The proposed structures surpass theexisting algorithms consistently under all circumstances tested.

## High speed data collection with Blackfin DSP

This report covers a master thesis in embedded systems, the goal of which was to investigate the high speed data collection capabilities with a Blackfin DSP. Basic theory about sampling and noise is covered briefly from a practical point of view. The theory is intended to be useful for those diving into a ADC datasheet for the first time. After an investigation of the delimiting factors, suitable components were selected and a prototype ADC PCB was designed from scratch. The goal is to design a general low noise data collecting unit compatible with the Blackfin DSP. Finally simple DSP software is designed to prove that DSP can handle such a high datastream.Testing the ADC card with the target Blackfin platform indicates thatthe analog parts indeed works. An analog bandwidth of over 10MHz ismeasured at a resolution exceeding 10 bits with respect to noise. The digital parts intended to interleave the two channels digital streams into one Blackfin unit did not work as intended. Only one channel is supported as of now. The report contains suggestions for future work in this area.