## A Quadrature Signals Tutorial: Complex, But Not Complicated

Introduction Quadrature signals are based on the notion of complex numbers and perhaps no other topic causes more heartache for newcomers to DSP than these numbers and their strange terminology of j operator, complex, imaginary, real, and orthogonal. If you're a little unsure of the physical meaning of complex numbers and the j = √-1 operator, don't feel bad because you're in good company. Why even Karl Gauss, one the world's greatest mathematicians, called the j-operator the "shadow of...

## A Fixed-Point Introduction by Example

IntroductionThe finite-word representation of fractional numbers is known as fixed-point. Fixed-point is an interpretation of a 2's compliment number usually signed but not limited to sign representation. It extends our finite-word length from a finite set of integers to a finite set of rational real numbers [1]. A fixed-point representation of a number consists of integer and fractional components. The bit length is defined...

## GPS - some terminology!

Hi!

For my first post, I will share some information about GPS - Global Positioning System. I will delve one step deeper than a basic explanation of how a GPS system works and introduce some terminology.

GPS, like we all know is the system useful for identifying one's position, velocity, & time using signals from satellites (referred to as SV or space vehicle in literature). It uses the principle of trilateration (not triangulation which is misused frequently) for...

## New Video: Parametric Oscillations

I just posted this last night. It's kinda off-topic from the mission of the channel, but I realized that it had been months since I'd posted a video, and having an excuse to build on helped keep me on track.

## New Video: Parametric Oscillations

I just posted this last night. It's kinda off-topic from the mission of the channel, but I realized that it had been months since I'd posted a video, and having an excuse to build on helped keep me on track.

## Setting Carrier to Noise Ratio in Simulations

When simulating digital receivers, we often want to check performance with added Gaussian noise. In this article, I’ll derive the simple equations for the rms noise level needed to produce a desired carrier to noise ratio (CNR or C/N). I also provide a short Matlab function to generate a noise vector of the desired level for a given signal vector.

Definition of C/NThe Carrier to noise ratio is defined as the ratio of average signal power to noise power for a modulated...