## Two Coupled Strings

### Two Ideal Strings Coupled at an Impedance

A diagram for the two-string case is shown in Fig. C.30. This situation is a special case of the loaded waveguide junction, Eq.(C.98), with the number of waveguides being , and the junction load being the transverse driving-point impedance where the string drives the bridge. If the bridge is passive, then its impedance is a positive real function (see §C.11.2). For a direct derivation, we need only observe that (1) the string velocities of each string endpoint must each be equal to the velocity of the bridge, or , and (2) the sum of forces of both strings equals the force applied to the bridge: . The bridge impedance relates the force and velocity of the bridge via . Expanding into traveling wave components in the Laplace domain, we have(C.108) | |||

(C.109) | |||

(C.110) | |||

(C.111) |

or

(C.112) | |||

(C.113) |

Thus, the incoming waves are subtracted from the bridge velocity to get the outgoing waves. Since when , and vice versa exchanging strings and , may be interpreted as the

*transmission admittance filter*associated with the bridge coupling. It can also be interpreted as the bridge admittance transfer function from every string, since its output is the bridge velocity resulting from the sum of incident traveling force waves. A general coupling matrix contains a filter transfer function in each entry of the matrix. For strings, each conveying a single type of wave (

*e.g.*, horizontally polarized), the general linear coupling matrix would have transfer-function entries. In the present formulation, only one transmission filter is needed, and it is shared by all the strings meeting at the bridge. It is easy to show that the shared transmission filter for two coupled strings generalizes to strings coupled at a common bridge impedance: From (C.98), we have

*one multiply scattering junction*frequently used in digital lattice filters [297]. In this context, it would be better termed the ``one-filter scattering termination.'' When the two strings are identical (as would be appropriate in a model for coupled piano strings), the computation of bridge velocity simplifies to

where is the

*velocity*transmission filter. In this case, the incoming velocities are simply summed and fed to the transmission filter which produces the bridge velocity at its output. A commuted simulation diagram appears in Fig. C.31. Note that a yielding bridge introduces losses into all attached strings. Therefore, in a maximally simplified implementation, all string loop filters (labeled LPF and LPF in Fig.C.31) may be

*eliminated*, resulting in only one filter--the transmission filter--serving to provide all losses in a coupled-string simulation. If that transmission filter has no multiplies, then neither does the entire multi-string simulation.

### Coupled Strings Eigenanalysis

In §6.12.2, general coupling of horizontal and vertical planes of vibration in an ideal string was considered. This eigenanalysis will now be applied here to obtain formulas for the*damping*and

*mode tuning*caused by the coupling of two identical strings at a bridge. This is the case that arises in pianos [543]. The general formula for linear, time-invariant coupling of two strings can be written, in the frequency domain, as

Filling in the elements of this coupling matrix from the results of §C.13.1, we obtain

^{C.10}to be

**Next Section:**

Digital Waveguide Mesh

**Previous Section:**

Loaded Waveguide Junctions