## Do Multirate Systems Have Transfer Functions?

The following text describes why I ask the strange question in the title of this blog. Some months ago I was asked to review a article manuscript, for possible publication in a signal processing journal, that presented a method for improving the performance of cascaded integrator-comb (CIC) decimation filters [1].

Thinking about such filters, Figure 1(a) shows the block diagram of a traditional 2nd-order CIC decimation filter followed by downsampling by the sample rate factor R. There we...

## Spectral Flipping Around Signal Center Frequency

Most of us are familiar with the process of flipping the spectrum (spectral inversion) of a real signal by multiplying that signal's time samples by (-1)n. In that process the center of spectral rotation is fs/4, where fs is the signal's sample rate in Hz. In this blog we discuss a different kind of spectral flipping process.

Consider the situation where we need to flip the X(f) spectrum in Figure 1(a) to obtain the desired Y(f) spectrum shown in Figure 1(b). Notice that the center of...

## Bank-switched Farrow resampler

Bank-switched Farrow resampler SummaryA modification of the Farrow structure with reduced computational complexity.Compared to a conventional design, the impulse response is broken into a higher number of segments. Interpolation accuracy is achieved with a lower polynomial order, requiring fewer multiplications per output sample at the expense of a higher overall number of coefficients.

Example codeThis code snippet provides a Matlab / Octave implementation.And

## 'z' as in 'Zorro': Frequency Masking FIR

An efficient way to implement FIR filters. Matlab / Octave example included. Keywords: Frequency masking FIR filter implementation

IntroductionAn "upsampled" FIR filter uses multiple-sample delays between the taps, compared to the unity delays in a conventional FIR filter. The resulting frequency response has steeper edges, but contains periodic images along the frequency axis (Fig. 1). Due to the latter, it is typically not too useful on its own.

Figure 1: Conventional and 'upsampled'...## 'z' as in 'Zorro': Frequency Masking FIR

An efficient way to implement FIR filters. Matlab / Octave example included. Keywords: Frequency masking FIR filter implementation

IntroductionAn "upsampled" FIR filter uses multiple-sample delays between the taps, compared to the unity delays in a conventional FIR filter. The resulting frequency response has steeper edges, but contains periodic images along the frequency axis (Fig. 1). Due to the latter, it is typically not too useful on its own.

Figure 1: Conventional and 'upsampled'...## Multi-Decimation Stage Filtering for Sigma Delta ADCs: Design and Optimization

During my research on digital FIR decimation filters I have been developing various Matlab scripts and functions. In which I have decided later on to consolidate it in a form of a toolbox. I have developed this toolbox to assist and automate the process of designing the multi-stage decimation filter(s). The toolbox is published as an open-source at the MathWorks web-site. My dissertation is open for public online as well. The toolbox has a wide set of examples to guide the user...