## Introduction to Compressed Sensing

Chapter 1 of the book: "Compressed Sensing: Theory and Applications".

## Introduction to Real-Time Digital Signal Processing

Chapter 1 of the book: Real-Time Digital Signal Processing: Fundamentals, Implementations and Applications, 3rd Edition

## A Pragmatic Introduction to Signal Processing

An illustrated essay with software available for free download.

## Introduction to Signal Processing

This book provides an applications-oriented introduction to digital signal processing written primarily for electrical engineering undergraduates. Practicing engineers and graduate students may also ﬁnd it useful as a ﬁrst text on the subject.

## C++ Tutorial

This tutorial is for those people who want to learn programming in C++ and do not necessarily have any previous knowledge of other programming languages. Of course any knowledge of other programming languages or any general computer skill can be useful to better understand this tutorial, although it is not essential. It is also suitable for those who need a little update on the new features the language has acquired from the latest standards. If you are familiar with the C language, you can take the first 3 parts of this tutorial as a review of concepts, since they mainly explain the C part of C++. There are slight differences in the C++ syntax for some C features, so I recommend you its reading anyway. The 4th part describes object-oriented programming. The 5th part mostly describes the new features introduced by ANSI-C++ standard.

## Computing FFT Twiddle Factors

In this document are two algorithms showing how to compute the individual twiddle factors of an N-point decimation-in-frequency (DIF) and an N-point decimation-in-time (DIT) FFT.

## Generating Complex Baseband and Analytic Bandpass Signals

There are so many different time- and frequency-domain methods for generating complex baseband and analytic bandpass signals that I had trouble keeping those techniques straight in my mind. Thus, for my own benefit, I created a kind of reference table showing those methods. I present that table for your viewing pleasure in this document.

## How Discrete Signal Interpolation Improves D/A Conversion

Earlier this year, for the Linear Audio magazine, published in the Netherlands whose subscribers are technically-skilled hi-fi audio enthusiasts, I wrote an article on the fundamentals of interpolation as it's used to improve the performance of analog-to-digital conversion. Perhaps that article will be of some value to the subscribers of dsprelated.com. Here's what I wrote: We encounter the process of digital-to-analog conversion every day—in telephone calls (land lines and cell phones), telephone answering machines, CD & DVD players, iPhones, digital television, MP3 players, digital radio, and even talking greeting cards. This material is a brief tutorial on how sample rate conversion improves the quality of digital-to-analog conversion.

## Complex Down-Conversion Amplitude Loss

This article illustrates the signal amplitude loss inherent in a traditional complex down-conversion system. (In the literature of signal processing, complex down-conversion is also called "quadrature demodulation.")

## Efficient Digital Fiilters

What would you do in the following situation? Let ’ s say you are diagnosing a DSP system problem in the field. You have your trusty laptop with your development system and an emulator. You figure out that there was a problem with the system specifications and a symmetric FIR filter in the software won ’ t do the job; it needs reduced passband ripple, or maybe more stopband attenuation. You then realize you don ’ t have any filter design software on the laptop, and the customer is getting angry. The answer is easy: You can take the existing filter and sharpen it. Simply stated, filter sharpening is a technique for creating a new filter from an old one [1] – [3] . While the technique is almost 30 years old, it is not generally known by DSP engineers nor is it mentioned in most DSP textbooks.

## Computing Translated Frequencies in Digitizing and Downsampling Analog Bandpass Signals

In digital signal processing (DSP) we're all familiar with the processes of bandpass sampling an analog bandpass signal and downsampling a digital bandpass signal. The overall spectral behavior of those operations are well-documented. However, mathematical expressions for computing the translated frequency of individual spectral components, after bandpass sampling or downsampling, are not available in the standard DSP textbooks. This document explains how to compute the frequencies of translated spectral components and provide the desired equations in the hope that they are of use to you.

## De-Noising Audio Signals Using MATLAB Wavelets Toolbox

Based on the fact that noise and distortion are the main factors that limit the capacity of data transmission in telecommunications and that they also affect the accuracy of the results in the signal measurement systems, whereas, modeling and removing noise and distortions are at the core of theoretical and practical considerations in communications and signal processing. Another important issue here is that, noise reduction and distortion removal are major problems in applications such as; cellular mobile communication, speech recognition, image processing, medical signal processing, radar, sonar, and any other application where the desired signals cannot be isolated from noise and distortion. The use of wavelets in the field of de-noising audio signals is relatively new, the use of this technique has been increasing over the past 20 years. One way to think about wavelets matches the way how our eyes perceive the world when they are faced to different distances. In the real world, a forest can be seen from many different perspectives; they are, in fact, different scales of resolution. From the window of an airplane, for instance, the forest cover appears as a solid green roof. From the window of a car, the green roof gets transformed into individual trees, and if we leave the car and approach to the forest, we can gradually see details such as the trees branches and leaves. If we had a magnifying glass, we could see a dew drop on the tip of a leaf. As we get closer to even smaller scales, we can discover details that we had not seen before. On the other hand, if we tried to do the same thing with a photograph, we would be completely frustrated. If we enlarged the picture "closer" to a tree, we would only be able to see a blurred tree image; we would not be able to spot neither the branch, nor the leaf, and it would be impossible to spot the dew drop. Although our eyes can see on many scales of resolution, the camera can only display one at a time. In this chapter, we introduce the reader to a way to reduce noise in an audio signal by using wavelet transforms. We developed this technique by using the wavelet tool in MATLAB. A Simulink is used to acquire an audio signal and we use it to convert the signal to a digital format so it can be processed. Finally, a Graphical User Interface Development Environment (GUIDE) is used to create a graphical user interface. The reader can go through this chapter systematically, from the theory to the implementation of the noise reduction technique. We will introduce in the first place the basic theory of an audio signal, the noise treatment fundamentals and principles of the wavelets theory. Then, we will present the development of noise reduction when using wavelet functions in MATLAB. In the foreground, we will demonstrate the usefulness of wavelets to reduce noise in a model system where Gaussian noise is inserted to an audio signal. In the following sections, we will present a practical example of noise reduction in a sinusoidal signal that has been generated in the MATLAB, which it is followed by an example with a real audio signal captured via Simulink. Finally, the graphic noise reduction model using GUIDE will be shown.

## Implementing IS-95, the CDMA Standard, on TMS320C6201 DSP

IS-95 is the present U.S. 2nd generation CDMA standard. Currently, the 2nd generation CDMA phones are produced by Qualcomm. Texas Instruments (TI) has ASIC design for Viterbi Decoder on C54x. Several of the components in the forward link process are also implemented in hardware. However, having to design a specific hardware for a particular application is expensive and time consuming. Thus, the possibility of the alternative implementations is of great interest to both customers and TI itself. This research has achieved in successful implementation of IS-95 entirely in software on TI fixed-point DSP TMS320C6201, and met the real time constraint. IS-95 system, the industrial standard for CDMA, is a very complicated system and extremely computationally demanding. The transmission rate for an IS-95 system is 1.2288 Mcps. This research project includes all the major components of the demodulation process for the forward link system: PN Descrambling, Walsh Despreading, Phase Correction & Maximal Ratio Combining, Deinterleaver, Digital Automatic Gain Control, and Viterbi Deccc:r. The entire demodulation process is done completely in C. That makes it a very attractive alternative implementation in the future applications. It is well known that ASIC design is not only expensive and but also time consuming, programming in assembly is easier and cheaper, but programming in C is a much easier and efficient way out, in particular, for general computer engineers. During the whole process, efforts have been devoted on developing various specific techniques to optimize the design for all the components involved. These developments are successfully achieved by making the best use of the following techniques: to simplify the algorithms first before programming, to look for regularity in the problem, to work toward the Compiler's full efficiency, and to use C intrinsics whenever possible. All these attributes together make the implementation scheme great for DSP applications. The benchmark results compare very well to the TI-internal hand scheduled assembly performance of the same type of decoders. The estimated percentage usage of all the components (excluding PN) is only 21.18% of the total CPU cycles available (4,000 K), which is very efficient and impressive.

## A New Approach to Linear Filtering and Prediction Problems

In 1960, R.E. Kalman published his famous paper describing a recursive solution to the discrete-data linear filtering problem. Since that time, due in large part to advances in digital computing, the Kalman filter has been the subject of extensive research and application, particularly in the area of autonomous or assisted navigation.

## Teaching MODEM Concepts and Design Procedure with MATLAB Simulations

MATLAB simulation is used as the primary tool to illustrate concepts, to validate MODEM designs, and to vent' operation of the subsystems employed in DSP based transmitters and receivers presented in a pair of classes on MODEM Design and Digital Receiver Design. The whole gamut of subsystems found in conventional and experimental modem designs are simulated and assembled to form a full end-to-end simulation of an operating MODEM. This paper describes the philosophy used to guide class involvement and assess the experience and the learning value to student participants.

## A Wide-Notch Comb Filter

This article describes a linear-phase comb filter having wider stopband notches than a traditional comb filter.

## An Experimental Multichannel Pulse Code Modulation System of Toll Quality + Electron Beam Deflection Tube For Pulse Code Modulation

See this blog post for context. Pulse Code Modulation offers attractive possibilities for multiplex telephony via such media as the microwave radio relay. The various problems involved in its use have been explored in terms of a 96-channel system designed to meet the transmission requirements commonly imposed upon commercial toll circuits. Twenty-four of the 96 channels have been fully equipped in an experimental model of the system. Coding and decoding devices are described, along with other circuit details. The coder is based upon a new electron beam tube, and is characterized by speed and simplicity as well as accuracy of coding. These qualities are matched in the decoder, which employs pulse excitation of a simple reactive network.

## Decimator Image Response

This article presents a way to compute and plot the image response of a decimator. I'm defining the image response as the unwanted spectrum of the impulse response after downsampling, relative to the desired passband response.