## How Discrete Signal Interpolation Improves D/A Conversion

●2 commentsEarlier this year, for the Linear Audio magazine, published in the Netherlands whose subscribers are technically-skilled hi-fi audio enthusiasts, I wrote an article on the fundamentals of interpolation as it's used to improve the performance of analog-to-digital conversion. Perhaps that article will be of some value to the subscribers of dsprelated.com. Here's what I wrote: We encounter the process of digital-to-analog conversion every day—in telephone calls (land lines and cell phones), telephone answering machines, CD & DVD players, iPhones, digital television, MP3 players, digital radio, and even talking greeting cards. This material is a brief tutorial on how sample rate conversion improves the quality of digital-to-analog conversion.

## Understanding the 'Phasing Method' of Single Sideband Demodulation

●5 commentsThere are four ways to demodulate a transmitted single sideband (SSB) signal. Those four methods are: synchronous detection, phasing method, Weaver method, and filtering method. Here we review synchronous detection in preparation for explaining, in detail, how the phasing method works. This blog contains lots of preliminary information, so if you're already familiar with SSB signals you might want to scroll down to the 'SSB DEMODULATION BY SYNCHRONOUS DETECTION' section.

## Using the DFT as a Filter: Correcting a Misconception

●2 commentsI have read, in some of the literature of DSP, that when the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is used as a filter the process of performing a DFT causes an input signal's spectrum to be frequency translated down to zero Hz (DC). I can understand why someone might say that, but I challenge that statement as being incorrect. Here are my thoughts.

## A Quadrature Signals Tutorial: Complex, But Not Complicated

●6 commentsQuadrature signals are based on the notion of complex numbers and perhaps no other topic causes more heartache for newcomers to DSP than these numbers and their strange terminology of j operator, complex, imaginary, real, and orthogonal. If you're a little unsure of the physical meaning of complex numbers and the j = √-1 operator, don't feel bad because you're in good company. Why even Karl Gauss, one the world's greatest mathematicians, called the j operator the "shadow of shadows". Here we'll shine some light on that shadow so you'll never have to call the Quadrature Signal Psychic Hotline for help. Quadrature signal processing is used in many fields of science and engineering, and quadrature signals are necessary to describe the processing and implementation that takes place in modern digital communications systems. In this tutorial we'll review the fundamentals of complex numbers and get comfortable with how they're used to represent quadrature signals. Next we examine the notion of negative frequency as it relates to quadrature signal algebraic notation, and learn to speak the language of quadrature processing. In addition, we'll use three-dimensional time and frequency-domain plots to give some physical meaning to quadrature signals. This tutorial concludes with a brief look at how a quadrature signal can be generated by means of quadrature-sampling.

## Computing Translated Frequencies in Digitizing and Downsampling Analog Bandpass Signals

In digital signal processing (DSP) we're all familiar with the processes of bandpass sampling an analog bandpass signal and downsampling a digital bandpass signal. The overall spectral behavior of those operations are well-documented. However, mathematical expressions for computing the translated frequency of individual spectral components, after bandpass sampling or downsampling, are not available in the standard DSP textbooks. This document explains how to compute the frequencies of translated spectral components and provide the desired equations in the hope that they are of use to you.

## Hilbert Transform and Applications

●1 commentSection 1: reviews the mathematical deﬁnition of Hilbert transform and various ways to calculate it.

Sections 2 and 3: review applications of Hilbert transform in two major areas: Signal processing and system identiﬁcation.

Section 4: concludes with remarks on the historical development of Hilbert transform

## Voice Activity Detection. Fundamentals and Speech Recognition System Robustness

An important drawback affecting most of the speech processing systems is the environmental noise and its harmful effect on the system performance. Examples of such systems are the new wireless communications voice services or digital hearing aid devices. In speech recognition, there are still technical barriers inhibiting such systems from meeting the demands of modern applications. Numerous noise reduction techniques have been developed to palliate the effect of the noise on the system performance and often require an estimate of the noise statistics obtained by means of a precise voice activity detector (VAD). Speech/non-speech detection is an unsolved problem in speech processing and affects numerous applications including robust speech recognition, discontinuous transmission, real-time speech transmission on the Internet or combined noise reduction and echo cancellation schemes in the context of telephony. The speech/non-speech classification task is not as trivial as it appears, and most of the VAD algorithms fail when the level of background noise increases. During the last decade, numerous researchers have developed different strategies for detecting speech on a noisy signal and have evaluated the influence of the VAD effectiveness on the performance of speech processing systems. Most of the approaches have focussed on the development of robust algorithms with special attention being paid to the derivation and study of noise robust features and decision rules. The different VAD methods include those based on energy thresholds, pitch detection, spectrum analysis, zero-crossing rate, periodicity measure, higher order statistics in the LPC residual domain or combinations of different features. This chapter shows a comprehensive approximation to the main challenges in voice activity detection, the different solutions that have been reported in a complete review of the state of the art and the evaluation frameworks that are normally used. The application of VADs for speech coding, speech enhancement and robust speech recognition systems is shown and discussed. Three different VAD methods are described and compared to standardized and recently reported strategies by assessing the speech/non-speech discrimination accuracy and the robustness of speech recognition systems.

## Digital Image Processing Using LabView

Digital Image processing is a topic of great relevance for practically any project, either for basic arrays of photodetectors or complex robotic systems using artificial vision. It is an interesting topic that offers to multimodal systems the capacity to see and understand their environment in order to interact in a natural and more efficient way. The development of new equipment for high speed image acquisition and with higher resolutions requires a significant effort to develop techniques that process the images in a more efficient way. Besides, medical applications use new image modalities and need algorithms for the interpretation of these images as well as for the registration and fusion of the different modalities, so that the image processing is a productive area for the development of multidisciplinary applications. The aim of this chapter is to present different digital image processing algorithms using LabView and IMAQ vision toolbox. IMAQ vision toolbox presents a complete set of digital image processing and acquisition functions that improve the efficiency of the projects and reduce the programming effort of the users obtaining better results in shorter time. Therefore, the IMAQ vision toolbox of LabView is an interesting tool to analyze in detail and through this chapter it will be presented different theories about digital image processing and different applications in the field of image acquisition, image transformations. This chapter includes in first place the image acquisition and some of the most common operations that can be locally or globally applied, the statistical information generated by the image in a histogram is commented later. Finally, the use of tools allowing to segment or filtrate the image are described making special emphasis in the algorithms of pattern recognition and matching template.

## De-Noising Audio Signals Using MATLAB Wavelets Toolbox

Based on the fact that noise and distortion are the main factors that limit the capacity of data transmission in telecommunications and that they also affect the accuracy of the results in the signal measurement systems, whereas, modeling and removing noise and distortions are at the core of theoretical and practical considerations in communications and signal processing. Another important issue here is that, noise reduction and distortion removal are major problems in applications such as; cellular mobile communication, speech recognition, image processing, medical signal processing, radar, sonar, and any other application where the desired signals cannot be isolated from noise and distortion. The use of wavelets in the field of de-noising audio signals is relatively new, the use of this technique has been increasing over the past 20 years. One way to think about wavelets matches the way how our eyes perceive the world when they are faced to different distances. In the real world, a forest can be seen from many different perspectives; they are, in fact, different scales of resolution. From the window of an airplane, for instance, the forest cover appears as a solid green roof. From the window of a car, the green roof gets transformed into individual trees, and if we leave the car and approach to the forest, we can gradually see details such as the trees branches and leaves. If we had a magnifying glass, we could see a dew drop on the tip of a leaf. As we get closer to even smaller scales, we can discover details that we had not seen before. On the other hand, if we tried to do the same thing with a photograph, we would be completely frustrated. If we enlarged the picture "closer" to a tree, we would only be able to see a blurred tree image; we would not be able to spot neither the branch, nor the leaf, and it would be impossible to spot the dew drop. Although our eyes can see on many scales of resolution, the camera can only display one at a time. In this chapter, we introduce the reader to a way to reduce noise in an audio signal by using wavelet transforms. We developed this technique by using the wavelet tool in MATLAB. A Simulink is used to acquire an audio signal and we use it to convert the signal to a digital format so it can be processed. Finally, a Graphical User Interface Development Environment (GUIDE) is used to create a graphical user interface. The reader can go through this chapter systematically, from the theory to the implementation of the noise reduction technique. We will introduce in the first place the basic theory of an audio signal, the noise treatment fundamentals and principles of the wavelets theory. Then, we will present the development of noise reduction when using wavelet functions in MATLAB. In the foreground, we will demonstrate the usefulness of wavelets to reduce noise in a model system where Gaussian noise is inserted to an audio signal. In the following sections, we will present a practical example of noise reduction in a sinusoidal signal that has been generated in the MATLAB, which it is followed by an example with a real audio signal captured via Simulink. Finally, the graphic noise reduction model using GUIDE will be shown.

## Complex Digital Signal Processing in Telecommunications

●2 commentsDigital Signal Processing (DSP) is a vital tool for scientists and engineers, as it is of fundamental importance in many areas of engineering practice and scientific research. The "alphabet" of DSP is mathematics and although most practical DSP problems can be solved by using real number mathematics, there are many others which can only be satisfactorily resolved or adequately described by means of complex numbers. If real number mathematics is the language of real DSP, then complex number mathematics is the language of complex DSP. In the same way that real numbers are a part of complex numbers in mathematics, real DSP can be regarded as a part of complex DSP (Smith, 1999). Complex mathematics manipulates complex numbers - the representation of two variables as a single number - and it may appear that complex DSP has no obvious connection with our everyday experience, especially since many DSP problems are explained mainly by means of real number mathematics. Nonetheless, some DSP techniques are based on complex mathematics, such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), z-transform, representation of periodical signals and linear systems, etc. However, the imaginary part of complex transformations is usually ignored or regarded as zero due to the inability to provide a readily comprehensible physical explanation. One well-known practical approach to the representation of an engineering problem by means of complex numbers can be referred to as the assembling approach: the real and imaginary parts of a complex number are real variables and individually can represent two real physical parameters. Complex math techniques are used to process this complex entity once it is assembled. The real and imaginary parts of the resulting complex variable preserve the same real physical parameters. This approach is not universally-applicable and can only be used with problems and applications which conform to the requirements of complex math techniques. Making a complex number entirely mathematically equivalent to a substantial physical problem is the real essence of complex DSP. Like complex Fourier transforms, complex DSP transforms show the fundamental nature of complex DSP and such complex techniques often increase the power of basic DSP methods. The development and application of complex DSP are only just beginning to increase and for this reason some researchers have named it theoretical DSP. It is evident that complex DSP is more complicated than real DSP. Complex DSP transforms are highly theoretical and mathematical; to use them efficiently and professionally requires a large amount of mathematics study and practical experience. Complex math makes the mathematical expressions used in DSP more compact and solves the problems which real math cannot deal with. Complex DSP techniques can complement our understanding of how physical systems perform but to achieve this, we are faced with the necessity of dealing with extensive sophisticated mathematics. For DSP professionals there comes a point at which they have no real choice since the study of complex number mathematics is the foundation of DSP.

## Multirate Signal Processing Concepts in Digital Communications

Multirate systems are building blocks commonly used in digital signal processing (DSP). Their function is to alter the rate of the discrete-time signals, by adding or deleting a portion of the signal samples. They are essential in various standard signal processing techniques such as signal analysis, denoising, compression and so forth. During the last decade, however, they have increasingly found applications in new and emerging areas of signal processing, as well as in several neighboring disciplines such as digital communications. The main contribution of this thesis is aimed towards a better understanding of multirate systems and their use in modern communication systems. To this end, we first study a property of linear systems appearing in certain multirate structures. This property is called biorthogonal partnership and represents a terminology introduced recently to address a need for a descriptive term for such class of filters. In the thesis we especially focus on the extensions of this simple idea to the case of vector signals (MIMO biorthogonal partners) and to accommodate for nonintegral decimation ratios (fractional biorthogonal partners). The main results developed here study the properties of biorthogonal partners, e.g., the conditions for the existence of stable and of finite impulse response (FIR) partners. In this context we develop the parameterization of FIR solutions, which makes the search for the best partner in a given application analytically tractable. This proves very useful in their central application, namely, channel equalization in digital communications with signal oversampling at the receiver. A good channel equalizer in this context is one that helps neutralize the distortion on the signal introduced by the channel propagation but not at the expense of amplifying the channel noise. In the second part of the thesis, we focus on another class of multirate systems, used at the transmitter side in order to introduce redundancy in the data stream. This redundancy generally serves to facilitate the equalization process by forcing certain structure on the transmitted signal. We first consider the transmission systems that introduce the redundancy in the form of a cyclic prefix. The examples of such systems include the discrete multitone (DMT) and the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. We study the signal precoding in such systems, aimed at improving the performance by minimizing the noise power at the receiver. We also consider a different class of communication systems with signal redundancy, namely, the multiuser systems based on code division multiple access (CDMA). We specifically focus on the special class of CDMA systems called `a mutually orthogonal usercode receiver' (AMOUR). We show how to find the best equalizer from the class of zero-forcing solutions in such systems, and then increase the size of this class by employing alternative sampling strategies at the receiver.

## Complex Down-Conversion Amplitude Loss

●2 commentsThis article illustrates the signal amplitude loss inherent in a traditional complex down-conversion system. (In the literature of signal processing, complex down-conversion is also called "quadrature demodulation.")

## Specifying the Maximum Amplifier Noise When Driving an ADC

●3 commentsI recently learned an interesting rule of thumb regarding the use of an amplifier to drive the input of an analog to digital converter (ADC). The rule of thumb describes how to specify the maximum allowable noise power of the amplifier.

## Introduction to Sound Processing

●5 commentsAudio signal processing with MATLAB and Octave code examples.

## FUZZY LOGIC BASED CONVOLUTIONAL DECODER FOR USE IN MOBILE TELEPHONE SYSTEMS

●1 commentEfficient convolutional coding and decoding algorithms are most crucial to successful operation of wireless communication systems in order to achieve high quality of service by reducing the overall bit error rate performance. A widely applied and well evaluated scheme for error correction purposes is well known as Viterbi algorithm [7]. Although the Viterbi algorithm has very good error correcting characteristics, computational effort required remains high. In this paper a novel approach is discussed introducing a convolutional decoder design based on fuzzy logic. A simplified version of this fuzzy based decoder is examined with respect to bit error rate (BER) performance. It can be shown that the fuzzy based convolutional decoder here proposed considerably reduces computational effort with only minor BER performance degradation when compared to the classical Viterbi approach.

## A New Approach to Linear Filtering and Prediction Problems

●3 commentsIn 1960, R.E. Kalman published his famous paper describing a recursive solution to the discrete-data linear filtering problem. Since that time, due in large part to advances in digital computing, the Kalman filter has been the subject of extensive research and application, particularly in the area of autonomous or assisted navigation.

## Algorithms and tools for automatic generation of DSP hardware structures

The increased complexity of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) algorithms demands for the development of more complex and more eﬃcient hardware structures. The work presented herein describes the core components for the development of a tool capable of automatic generation of eﬃcient hardware structures, therefore facilitating developers work. It comprises algorithms and techniques for i) balancing the paths in a graph, ii) scheduling of operations to functional units, iii) allocating registers and iv) generating the VHDL code. Results show that the developed techniques are capable of generating the hardware structure of typical DSP algorithms represented in data-ﬂow graphs with over 2,000 nodes in around 200 ms, scaling to 80,000 nodes in about 214 s. Within the developed techniques, solving the scheduling problem is one of the most complex tasks: it is a NP-complete problem and directly inﬂuences the number of functional units and registers required. Therefore, experimental analysis was made on scheduling algorithms for time-constrained problems. Results show that simple list-based algorithms are more eﬃcient in large problems than more complex algorithms: they run faster and tend to require less functional units.

## EngD thesis: Reduced-Complexity Signal Detection in Digital Communications Receivers

The Author began this Engineering Doctorate (EngD) in Autumn 1999, whilst already in full-time employment as a DSP software engineer at Nortel Networks, Harlow. This EngD comprises a set of three projects. The first project was focused on the development of dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) signal detection software. DTMF signals are currently used for operating menu-driven services such as voice-mail, telephone banking and share-dealing. The need for detection software in a packet networking environment exists because such signals become degraded when they travel through speech compression circuits. In addition, if they appear as echoes on a telephone line, they can affect the operation of echo cancellation systems. In this thesis a number of DSP algorithms are discussed where fast detection and minimum complexity are key characteristics. A key contribution here was the development of a novel detection algorithm based on the extraction of parameters that model the DTMF signal. The thesis reports a method combining parameter extraction with the technique of maximum likelihood to perform DTMF detection, resulting in very short time-frames when compared to standard approaches. Reducing the complexity of detection techniques is also important in today’s communication systems. To this end a key contribution here was the development of the ‘split Goertzel algorithm’, which permitted an overlapping of analysis windows without the need for reprocessing input data. Besides being applied to voice-band signals, such as in the case of DTMF, the Author also had the opportunity during the EngD to apply the skills and knowledge acquired in signal processing to higher-rate data-streams. This involved work concerning the equalisation of channel distortion commonly found in wireless communication systems. This covers two projects, with the first being conducted at Verticalband Ltd. (now no longer operational) in the area of digital television receivers. In this part of the thesis a real-time DSP implementation is discussed for enhancing a simulation system developed for wireless channels. A number of channel equalisation approaches are studied. The work concludes that for high-rate signals, non-linear algorithms have the best error rate performance. On the basis of the studies carried out, the thesis considers development and implementation issues of designs based on the decision feedback equaliser. The thesis reports on a software design which applies the method of least squares to carry out filter coefficient adaptation. The Verticalband studies reported lead on to further research within the context of channel equalisation, in the context of the detection of data in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless local area network (WLAN) systems. This work was undertaken at Philips Research in Eindhoven, The Netherlands. The thesis discusses implementation scenarios of multi-element antenna arrays that aim to provide bit-rates orders of magnitude higher than today’s WLAN offerings, as those required by emerging standards such as 802.11n. The complexity of optimal detection techniques, such as maximum likelihood, scales exponentially with the number of transmit antennas. This translates to high processing costs and power consumption, rendering such techniques unsuitable for use in battery-powered devices. The initial main contribution here was the analysis of the complexity of algorithms whose performance had already been tested, such as the non-linear maximum likelihood approach and also less complex methods utilising linear filtering. This resulted in the development of new formulae to predict processing costs of algorithms based on the number of transmit and receive antennas. Other key contributions were defining a method to reduce the complexity of matrix inversion when using the Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse, and the application of matrix decomposition to obviate the need for costly matrix inversion at all. Some on-going research into sub-optimal detection is also discussed, which describes methods to reduce the search-space for the maximum likelihood algorithm.

## Efficient Digital Fiilters

What would you do in the following situation? Let ’ s say you are diagnosing a DSP system problem in the field. You have your trusty laptop with your development system and an emulator. You figure out that there was a problem with the system specifications and a symmetric FIR filter in the software won ’ t do the job; it needs reduced passband ripple, or maybe more stopband attenuation. You then realize you don ’ t have any filter design software on the laptop, and the customer is getting angry. The answer is easy: You can take the existing filter and sharpen it. Simply stated, filter sharpening is a technique for creating a new filter from an old one [1] – [3] . While the technique is almost 30 years old, it is not generally known by DSP engineers nor is it mentioned in most DSP textbooks.

## Teaching MODEM Concepts and Design Procedure with MATLAB Simulations

●2 commentsMATLAB simulation is used as the primary tool to illustrate concepts, to validate MODEM designs, and to vent' operation of the subsystems employed in DSP based transmitters and receivers presented in a pair of classes on MODEM Design and Digital Receiver Design. The whole gamut of subsystems found in conventional and experimental modem designs are simulated and assembled to form a full end-to-end simulation of an operating MODEM. This paper describes the philosophy used to guide class involvement and assess the experience and the learning value to student participants.