Region based Active Contour Segmentation

Shawn Lankton, Allen Tannenbaum

In this paper, we propose a natural framework that allows any region-based segmentation energy to be re-formulated in a local way. We consider local rather than global image statistics and evolve a contour based on local information. Localized contours are capable of segmenting objects with heterogeneous feature profiles that would be difficult to capture correctly using a standard global method. The presented technique is versatile enough to be used with any global region-based active contour energy and instill in it the benefits of localization. We describe this framework and demonstrate the localization of three well-known energies in order to illustrate how our framework can be applied to any energy. We then compare each localized energy to its global counterpart to show the improvements that can be achieved. Next, an in-depth study of the behaviors of these energies in response to the degree of localization is given. Finally, we show results on challenging images to illustrate the robust and accurate segmentations that are possible with this new class of active contour models.


LOW-RESOURCE DELAYLESS SUBBAND ADAPTIVE FILTER USING WEIGHTED OVERLAP-ADD

Hamid Sheikhzadeh, Robert L. Brennan
2 comments

A delayless structure targeted for low-resource implementation is proposed to eliminate filterbank processing delays in subband adaptive filters (SAFs). Rather than using direct IFFT or polyphase filterbanks to transform the SAFs back into the time-domain, the proposed method utilizes a weighted overlap-add (WOLA) synthesis. Low-resource real-time implementations are targeted and as such do not involve long (as long as the echo plant) FFT or IFFT operations. Also, the proposed approach facilitates time distribution of the adaptive filter reconstruction calculations crucial for efficient real-time and hardware implementation. The method is implemented on an oversampled WOLA filterbank employed as part of an echo cancellation application. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed implementation outperforms conventional SAF systems since the signals used in actual adaptive filtering are not distorted by filterbank aliasing. The method is a good match for partial update adaptive algorithms since segments of the time-domain adaptive filter are sequentially reconstructed and updated.


OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DIGITAL EQUIVALENTS TO ANALOG FILTERS

Grigore I. Braileanu
4 comments

The proposed optimal algorithm for the digitizing of analog filters is based on two existing filter design methods: the extended window design (EWD) and the matched–pole (MP) frequency sampling design. The latter is closely related to the filter design with iterative weighted least squares (WLS). The optimization is performed with an original MP design that yields an equiripple digitizing error. Then, a drastic reduction of the digitizing error is achieved through the introduction of a fractional time shift that minimizes the magnitude of the equiripple error within a given frequency interval. The optimal parameters thus obtained can be used to generate the EWD equations, together with a variable fractional delay output, as described in an earlier paper. Finally, in contrast to the WLS procedure, which relies on a “good guess” of the weighting function, the MP optimization is straightforward.


A NEW PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATION FOR PARTICLE FILTERS AND ITS APPLICATION TO ADAPTIVE WAVEFORM DESIGN

Lifeng Miao, Jun Jason Zhang

Sequential Monte Carlo particle filters (PFs) are useful for estimating nonlinear non-Gaussian dynamic system parameters. As these algorithms are recursive, their real-time implementation can be computationally complex. In this paper, we analyze the bottlenecks in existing parallel PF algorithms, and we propose a new approach that integrates parallel PFs with independent Metropolis-Hastings (PPF-IMH) algorithms to improve root mean-squared estimation error performance. We implement the new PPF-IMH algorithm on a Xilinx Virtex-5 field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform. For a onedimensional problem and using 1,000 particles, the PPF-IMH architecture with four processing elements utilizes less than 5% Virtex-5 FPGA resources and takes 5.85 μs for one iteration. The algorithm performance is also demonstrated when designing the waveform for an agile sensing application.


A pole-zero placement technique for designing second-order IIR parametric equalizer filters

Toon van Waterschoot, Marc Moonen

A new procedure is presented for designing second-order parametric equalizer filters. In contrast to the traditional approach, in which the design is based on a bilinear transform of an analog filter, the presented procedure allows for designing the filter directly in the digital domain. A rather intuitive technique known as pole-zero placement, is treated here in a quantitative way. It is shown that by making some meaningful approximations, a set of relatively simple design equations can be obtained. Design examples of both notch and resonance filters are included to illustrate the performance of the proposed method, and to compare with state-of-the-art solutions.


Adaptive distributed noise reduction for speech enhancement in wireless acoustic sensor networks

Alexander Bertrand, Jef Callebaut

An adaptive distributed noise reduction algorithm for speech enhancement is considered, which operates in a wireless acoustic sensor network where each node collects multiple microphone signals. In previous work, it was shown theoretically that for a stationary scenario, the algorithm provides the same signal estimators as the centralized multi-channel Wiener filter, while significantly compressing the data that is transmitted between the nodes. Here, we present simulation results of a fully adaptive implementation of the algorithm, in a non-stationary acoustic scenario with a moving speaker and two babble noise sources. The algorithm is implemented using a weighted overlap-add technique to reduce the overall input-output delay. It is demonstrated that good results can be obtained by estimating the required signal statistics with a long-term forgetting factor without downdating, even though the signal statistics change along with the iterative filter updates. It is also demonstrated that simultaneous node updating provides a significantly smoother and faster tracking performance compared to sequential node updating.


EFFICIENT MAPPING OF ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS ON MULTI-PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES

Bhavana B. Manjunath, Aaron S. Williams
2 comments

Modern microprocessor technology is migrating from simply increasing clock speeds on a single processor to placing multiple processors on a die to increase throughput and power performance in every generation. To utilize the potential of such a system, signal processing algorithms have to be efficiently parallelized so that the load can be distributed evenly among the multiple processing units. In this paper, we study several advanced deterministic and stochastic signal processing algorithms and their computation using multiple processing units. Specifically, we consider two commonly used time-frequency signal representations, the short-time Fourier transform and the Wigner distribution, and we demonstrate their parallelization with low communication overhead. We also consider sequential Monte Carlo estimation techniques such as particle filtering, and we demonstrate that its multiple processor implementation requires large data exchanges and thus a high communication overhead. We propose a modified mapping scheme that reduces this overhead at the expense of a slight loss in accuracy, and we evaluate the performance of the scheme for a state estimation problem with respect to accuracy and scalability.


Closing the gap: CPU and FPGA Trends in sustainable floating-point BLAS performance

Keith D. Underwood, K. Scott Hemmert

Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have long been an attractive alternative to microprocessors for computing tasks — as long as floating-point arithmetic is not required. Fueled by the advance of Moore’s Law, FPGAs are rapidly reaching sufficient densities to enhance peak floating-point performance as well. The question, however, is how much of this peak performance can be sustained. This paper examines three of the basic linear algebra subroutine (BLAS) functions: vector dot product, matrix-vector multiply, and matrix multiply. A comparison of microprocessors, FPGAs, and Reconfigurable Computing platforms is performed for each operation. The analysis highlights the amount of memory bandwidth and internal storage needed to sustain peak performance with FPGAs. This analysis considers the historical context of the last six years and is extrapolated for the next six years.


BLAS Comparison on FPGA, CPU and GPU

Srinidhi Kestur, John D. Davis

High Performance Computing (HPC) or scientific codes are being executed across a wide variety of computing platforms from embedded processors to massively parallel GPUs. We present a comparison of the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) using double-precision floating point on an FPGA, CPU and GPU. On the CPU and GPU, we utilize standard libraries on state-of-the-art devices. On the FPGA, we have developed parameterized modular implementations for the dot product and Gaxpy or matrix-vector multiplication. In order to obtain optimal performance for any aspect ratio of the matrices, we have designed a high-throughput accumulator to perform an efficient reduction of floating point values. To support scalability to large data-sets, we target the BEE3 FPGA platform. We use performance and energy efficiency as metrics to compare the different platforms. Results show that FPGAs offer comparable performance as well as 2.7 to 293 times better energy efficiency for the test cases that we implemented on all three platforms.


Biosignal processing challenges in emotion recognition for adaptive learning

Aniket Vartak
14 comments

User-centered computer based learning is an emerging field of interdisciplinary research. Research in diverse areas such as psychology, computer science, neuroscience and signal processing is making contributions to take this field to the next level. Learning systems built using contributions from these fields could be used in actual training and education instead of just laboratory proof-of-concept. One of the important advances in this research is the detection and assessment of the cognitive and emotional state of the learner using such systems. This capability moves development beyond the use of traditional user performance metrics to include system intelligence measures that are based on current theories in neuroscience. These advances are of paramount importance in the success and wide spread use of learning systems that are automated and intelligent. Emotion is considered an important aspect of how learning occurs, and yet estimating it and making adaptive adjustments are not part of most learning systems. In this research we focus on one specific aspect of constructing an adaptive and intelligent learning system, that is, estimation of the emotion of the learner as he/she is using the automated training system. The challenge starts with the definition of the emotion and the utility of it in human life. The next challenge is to measure the co-varying factors of the emotions in a non-invasive way, and find consistent features from these measures that are valid across wide population. In this research we use four physiological sensors that are non-invasive, and establish a methodology of utilizing the data from these sensors using different signal processing tools. A validated set of visual stimuli used worldwide in the research of emotion and attention, called International Affective Picture System (IAPS), is used. A dataset is collected from the sensors in an experiment designed to elicit emotions from these validated visual stimuli. We describe a novel wavelet method to calculate hemispheric asymmetry metric using electroencephalography data. This method is tested against typically used power spectral density method. We show overall improvement in accuracy in classifying specific emotions using the novel method. We also show distinctions between different discrete emotions from the autonomic nervous system activity using electrocardiography, electrodermal activity and pupil diameter changes. Findings from different features from these sensors are used to give guidelines to use each of the individual sensors in the adaptive learning environment.