## Wavelet Denoising for TDR Dynamic Range Improvement

A technique is presented for removing large amounts of noise present in time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) waveforms to increase the dynamic range of TDR waveforms and TDR based s-parameter measurements.

## Bilinear Transformation Made Easy

●1 commentA formula is derived and demonstrated that is capable of directly generating digital filter coefficients from an analog filter prototype using the bilinear transformation. This formula obviates the need for any algebraic manipulation of the analog prototype filter and is ideal for use in embedded systems that must take in any general analog filter specification and dynamically generate digital filter coefficients directly usable in difference equations.

## FUZZY LOGIC BASED CONVOLUTIONAL DECODER FOR USE IN MOBILE TELEPHONE SYSTEMS

●1 commentEfficient convolutional coding and decoding algorithms are most crucial to successful operation of wireless communication systems in order to achieve high quality of service by reducing the overall bit error rate performance. A widely applied and well evaluated scheme for error correction purposes is well known as Viterbi algorithm [7]. Although the Viterbi algorithm has very good error correcting characteristics, computational effort required remains high. In this paper a novel approach is discussed introducing a convolutional decoder design based on fuzzy logic. A simplified version of this fuzzy based decoder is examined with respect to bit error rate (BER) performance. It can be shown that the fuzzy based convolutional decoder here proposed considerably reduces computational effort with only minor BER performance degradation when compared to the classical Viterbi approach.

## Method to Calculate the Inverse of a Complex Matrix using Real Matrix Inversion

●4 commentsThis paper describes a simple method to calculate the invers of a complex matrix. The key element of the method is to use a matrix inversion, which is available and optimised for real numbers. Some actual libraries used for digital signal processing only provide highly optimised methods to calculate the inverse of a real matrix, whereas no solution for complex matrices are available, like in [1]. The presented algorithm is very easy to implement, while still much more efficient than for example the method presented in [2]. [1] Visual DSP++ 4.0 C/C++ Compiler and Library Manual for TigerSHARC Processors; Analog Devices; 2005. [2] W. Press, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling, B.R. Flannery; Numerical Recipes in C++, The art of scientific computing, Second Edition; p52 : “Complex Systems of Equations”;Cambridge University Press 2002.

## Fully Programmable LDPC Decoder Hardware Architectures

●1 commentIn recent years, the amount of digital data which is stored and transmitted for private and public usage has increased considerably. To allow a save transmission and storage of data despite of error-prone transmission media, error correcting codes are used. A large variety of codes has been developed, and in the past decade low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes which have an excellent error correction performance became more and more popular. Today, low-density parity-check codes have been adopted for several standards, and eﬃcient decoder hardware architectures are known for the chosen structured codes. However, the existing decoder designs lack ﬂexibility as only few structured codes can be decoded with one decoder chip. In consequence, diﬀerent codes require a redesign of the decoder, and few solutions exist for decoding of codes which are not quasi-cyclic or which are unstructured. In this thesis, three diﬀerent approaches are presented for the implementation of fully programmable LDPC decoders which can decode arbitrary LDPC codes. As a design study, the ﬁrst programmable decoder which uses a heuristic mapping algorithm is realized on an ﬁeld-programmable gate array (FPGA), and error correction curves are measured to verify the correct functionality. The main contribution of this thesis lies in the development of the second and the third architecture and an appropriate mapping algorithm. The proposed fully programmable decoder architectures use one-phase message passing and layered decoding and can decode arbitrary LDPC codes using an optimum mapping and scheduling algorithm. The presented programmable architectures are in fact generalized decoder architectures from which the known decoders architectures for structured LDPC codes can be derived.

## Design of a Scalable Polyphony-MIDI Synthesizer for a Low Cost DSP

In this thesis, the design of a music synthesizer implementing the Scalable Polyphony-MIDI soundset on a low cost DSP system is presented. First, the SP-MIDI standard and the target DSP platform are presented followed by review of commonly used synthesis techniques and their applicability to systems with limited computational and memory resources. Next, various oscillator and ﬁlter algorithms used in digital subtractive synthesis are reviewed in detail. Special attention is given to the aliasing problem caused by discontinuities in classical waveforms, such as sawtooth and pulse waves and existing methods for bandlimited waveform synthesis are presented. This is followed by review of established structures for computationally efﬁcient time-varying ﬁlters. A novel digital structure is presented that decouples the cutoff and resonance controls. The new structure is based on the analog Korg MS-20 lowpass ﬁlter and is computationally very efﬁcient and well suited for implementation on low bitdepth architectures. Finally, implementation issues are discussed with emphasis on the Differentiated Parabole Wave oscillator and MS-20 ﬁlter structures and the effects of limited computational capability and low bitdepth. This is followed by designs for several example instruments.

## Implementation of a Tx/Rx OFDM System in a FPGA

●1 commentThe aim of this project consists in the FPGA design and implementation of a transmitter and receiver (Tx/Rx) multicarrier system such the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). This Tx/Rx OFDM subsystem is capable to deal with with different M-QAM modulations and is implemented in a digital signal processor (DSP-FPGA). The implementation of the Tx/Rx subsystem has been carried out in a FPGA using both System Generator visual programming running over Matlab/Simulink, and the Xilinx ISE program which uses VHDL language. This project is divided into four chapters, each one with a concrete objective. The first chapter is a brief introduction to the digital signal processor used, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and to the VHDL programming language. The second chapter is an overview on OFDM, its main advantages and disadvantages in front of previous systems, and a brief description of the different blocks composing the OFDM system. Chapter three provides the implementation details for each of these blocks, and also there is a brief explanation on the theory behind each of the OFDM blocks to provide a better comprehension on its implementation. The fourth chapter is focused, on the one hand, in showing the results of the Matlab/Simulink simulations for the different simulation schemes used and, on the other hand, to show the experimental results obtained using the FPGA to generate the OFDM signal at baseband and then upconverted at the frequency of 3,5 GHz. Finally the conclusions regarding the whole Tx/Rx design and implementation of the OFDM subsystem are given.

## Real Time Implementation of Multi-Level Perfect Signal Reconstruction Filter Bank

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is an efﬁcient tool for signal and image processing applications which has been utilized for perfect signal reconstruction. In this paper, twenty seven optimum combinations of three different wavelet ﬁlter types, three different ﬁlter reconstruction levels and three different kinds of signal for multi-level perfect reconstruction ﬁlter bank were implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. All the ﬁlters for different wavelet types were designed using Filter Design Analysis (FDA) and Wavelet toolbox. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) was calculated for each combination. Combination with best SNR was then implemented on TMS320C6713 DSP kit. Real time testing of perfect reconstruction on DSP kit was then carried out by two different methods. Experimental results accede with theory and simulations.

## A Multimedia DSP processor design

This Master Thesis presents the design of the core of a fixed point general purpose multimedia DSP processor (MDSP) and its instruction set. This processor employs parallel processing techniques and specialized addressing models to speed up the processing of multimedia applications. The MDSP has a dual MAC structure with one enhanced MAC that provides a SIMD, Single Instruction Multiple Data, unit consisting of four parallel data paths that are optimized for accelerating multimedia applications. The SIMD unit performs four multimedia-oriented 16-bit operations every clock cycle. This accelerates computationally intensive procedures such as video and audio decoding. The MDSP uses a memory bank of four memories to provide multiple accesses of source data each clock cycle.

## Implementation of Uncoordinated Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum using Software Defined Radios

One of the major threats to wireless communications is jamming. Many anti-jamming techniques have been presented in the past. However most of them are based on the precondition that the communicating devices have a pre-shared secret that can be used to synchronize the anti-jamming scheme. E.g. for frequency hopping the secret could be used to derive the hopping sequence and for direct sequence spread spectrum the secret is used to derive the spreading codes. But how can the devices bootstrap a jamming-resistant communication without having a pre-shared secret? Christina Popper and Mario Strasser propose as scheme for Uncoordinated Frequency Hopping (UFH) and Uncoordinated Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (UDSSS) in their papers [1] and [2] respectively. The goal of my project was an implementation of Uncoordinated Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (UDSSS) using Software Dened Radios. The First version should serve as an easy to use and extendable proof of conceptfor the proposed scheme.

## Implementation of Uncoordinated Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum using Software Defined Radios

One of the major threats to wireless communications is jamming. Many anti-jamming techniques have been presented in the past. However most of them are based on the precondition that the communicating devices have a pre-shared secret that can be used to synchronize the anti-jamming scheme. E.g. for frequency hopping the secret could be used to derive the hopping sequence and for direct sequence spread spectrum the secret is used to derive the spreading codes. But how can the devices bootstrap a jamming-resistant communication without having a pre-shared secret? Christina Popper and Mario Strasser propose as scheme for Uncoordinated Frequency Hopping (UFH) and Uncoordinated Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (UDSSS) in their papers [1] and [2] respectively. The goal of my project was an implementation of Uncoordinated Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (UDSSS) using Software Dened Radios. The First version should serve as an easy to use and extendable proof of conceptfor the proposed scheme.

## Evaluation of Image Warping Algorithms for Implementation in FPGA

The target of this master thesis is to evaluate the Image Warping technique and propose a possible design for an implementation in FPGA. The Image Warping is widely used in the image processing for image correction and rectification. A DSP is a usual choice for implantation of the image processing algorithms, but to decrease a cost of the target system it was proposed to use an FPGA for implementation. In this work a different Image Warping methods was evaluated in terms of performance, produced image quality, complexity and design size. Also, considering that it is not only Image Warping algorithm which will be implemented on the target system, it was important to estimate a possible memory bandwidth used by the proposed design. The evaluation was done by implemented a C-model of the proposed design with a finite datapath to simulate hardware implementation as close as possible.

## Digital Signal Processing Maths

●1 commentModern digital signal processing makes use of a variety of mathematical techniques. These techniques are used to design and understand efficient filters for data processing and control.

## Signal Processing Requirements for WiMAX (802.16e) Base Station

802.16e provides specifications for non line of sight, mobile wireless communications in the frequency range of 2-6 GHz. It is well implemented by using OFDMA as its physical layer scheme. The OFDM symbol time (sT) is to be selected depending on the channel conditions, available bandwidth and, simulations provide a means of selecting right values of sTin different channel conditions. Additionally it has been shown that certain values of sT outperform others in all conditions, thus invalidating their use. Moreover, a solution proposed by INTEL is also analyzed. One of the major requirements of OFDM is high synchronization. Detecting the timing offset of a new mobile user, entering the network, which is not time aligned using cross-correlation and ‘auto-correlation’ in time domain and cross-correlation in frequency domain at the base station has been simulated. Results point that the processing load can be significantly reduced by using frequency domain correlation of the received data or by using ‘auto-correlation’ followed by cross-correlation on localized data. The use of adaptive antenna system in 802.16e improves the system performance, where beamforming is implemented in the direction of desired user. Capon’s method and MUSIC method have been simulated to compute the direction of arrival for OFDMA uplink. A new user, while in the ranging process, transmits data with unknown time offset and unknown direction. The thesis describes the procedure to find the two unknown one after another.

## Fixed-Point Arithmetic: An Introduction

●3 commentsThis document presents definitions of signed and unsigned fixed-point binary number representations and develops basic rules and guidelines for the manipulation of these number representations using the common arithmetic and logical operations found in fixed-point DSPs and hardware components.

## Energy Profiling of DSP Applications, A Case Study of an Intelligent ECG Monitor

●7 commentsProper balance of power and performance for optimum system organization requires precise profiling of the power consumption of different hardware subsystems as well as software functions. Moreover, power consumption of mobile systems is even more important, since the battery is a large portion of the overall size and weight of the system. Average power consumption is only a crude estimate of power requirements and battery life; a much better estimate can be made using dynamic power consumption. Dynamic power consumption is a function of the execution profile of the given application running on specific hardware platform. In this paper we introduce a new environment for energy profiling of DSP applications. The environment consists of a JTAG emulator, a high-resolution HP 3583A multimeter and a workstation that controls devices and stores the traces. We use Texas Instruments’ Real Time Data Exchange mechanism (RTDXÔ) to generate an execution profile and custom procedures for energy profile data acquisition using GPIB interface. We developed custom procedures to correlate and analyze both energy and execution profiles. The environment allows us to improve the system power consumption through changes in software organization and to measure real battery life for the given hardware, software and battery configuration. As a case study, we present the analysis of a real-time portable ECG monitor implemented using a Texas Instruments TMS320C5410-100 processor board, and a Del Mar PWA ECG Amplifier.

## An Experimental Multichannel Pulse Code Modulation System of Toll Quality + Electron Beam Deflection Tube For Pulse Code Modulation

●1 commentSee this blog post for context. Pulse Code Modulation offers attractive possibilities for multiplex telephony via such media as the microwave radio relay. The various problems involved in its use have been explored in terms of a 96-channel system designed to meet the transmission requirements commonly imposed upon commercial toll circuits. Twenty-four of the 96 channels have been fully equipped in an experimental model of the system. Coding and decoding devices are described, along with other circuit details. The coder is based upon a new electron beam tube, and is characterized by speed and simplicity as well as accuracy of coding. These qualities are matched in the decoder, which employs pulse excitation of a simple reactive network.

## Algorithms, Architectures, and Applications for Compressive Video Sensing

The design of conventional sensors is based primarily on the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, which states that a signal of bandwidth W Hz is fully determined by its discrete-time samples provided the sampling rate exceeds 2W samples per second. For discrete-time signals, the Shannon-Nyquist theorem has a very simple interpretation: the number of data samples must be at least as large as the dimensionality of the signal being sampled and recovered. This important result enables signal processing in the discrete-time domain without any loss of information. However, in an increasing number of applications, the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem dictates an unnecessary and often prohibitively high sampling rate. (See Box 1 for a derivation of the Nyquist rate of a time-varying scene.) As a motivating example, the high resolution of the image sensor hardware in modern cameras reflects the large amount of data sensed to capture an image. A 10-megapixel camera, in effect, takes 10 million measurements of the scene. Yet, almost immediately after acquisition, redundancies in the image are exploited to compress the acquired data significantly, often at compression ratios of 100:1 for visualization and even higher for detection and classification tasks. This example suggests immense wastage in the overall design of conventional cameras.

## An Introduction To Compressive Sampling

This article surveys the theory of compressive sensing, also known as compressed sensing or CS, a novel sensing/sampling paradigm that goes against the common wisdom in data acquisition.

## Digital Image Processing Using LabView

Digital Image processing is a topic of great relevance for practically any project, either for basic arrays of photodetectors or complex robotic systems using artificial vision. It is an interesting topic that offers to multimodal systems the capacity to see and understand their environment in order to interact in a natural and more efficient way. The development of new equipment for high speed image acquisition and with higher resolutions requires a significant effort to develop techniques that process the images in a more efficient way. Besides, medical applications use new image modalities and need algorithms for the interpretation of these images as well as for the registration and fusion of the different modalities, so that the image processing is a productive area for the development of multidisciplinary applications. The aim of this chapter is to present different digital image processing algorithms using LabView and IMAQ vision toolbox. IMAQ vision toolbox presents a complete set of digital image processing and acquisition functions that improve the efficiency of the projects and reduce the programming effort of the users obtaining better results in shorter time. Therefore, the IMAQ vision toolbox of LabView is an interesting tool to analyze in detail and through this chapter it will be presented different theories about digital image processing and different applications in the field of image acquisition, image transformations. This chapter includes in first place the image acquisition and some of the most common operations that can be locally or globally applied, the statistical information generated by the image in a histogram is commented later. Finally, the use of tools allowing to segment or filtrate the image are described making special emphasis in the algorithms of pattern recognition and matching template.