## Novel Method of Showing Frequency Transients in the Fourier Transform and it’s Application in Time-Frequency Analysis

Fourier Transform in the frequency domain is modified to also analyse frequency transients i.e. changes in the frequency spectrum with time variable of any order. This is analytically, a very useful tool as there are many problems where frequency variation with time has to be analyzed e.g. Doppler shift, Light through different mediums in time and space. Numerical calculations are usually done for such problems when needed. Here, Fourier transform is analyzed to incorporate more variables that simultaneously do the Time lag-Frequency Analysis (TLFA) from Fourier Transform by changing the Fourier Operator. Also, the Frequency Derivative Analysis (FDA) of any order can be analyzed from Fourier Transform. Validity of the operator is examined using Eigen value analysis and operator algebra.

## STUDY OF DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

Modulation is the process of facilitating the transfer of information over a medium. Typically the objective of a digital communication system is to transport digital data between two or more nodes. In radio communications this is usually achieved by adjusting a physical characteristic of a sinusoidal carrier, either the frequency, phase, amplitude or a combination thereof . This is performed in real systems with a modulator at the transmitting end to impose the physical change to the carrier and a demodulator at the receiving end to detect the resultant modulation on reception. Hence, modulation can be objectively defined as the process of converting information so that it can be successfully sent through a medium. This thesis deals with the current digital modulation techniques used in industry. Also, the thesis examines the qualitative and quantitative criteria used in selection of one modulation technique over the other. All the experiments, and realted data collected were obtained using MATLAB and SIMULINK

## Region based Active Contour Segmentation

In this paper, we propose a natural framework that allows any region-based segmentation energy to be re-formulated in a local way. We consider local rather than global image statistics and evolve a contour based on local information. Localized contours are capable of segmenting objects with heterogeneous feature profiles that would be difficult to capture correctly using a standard global method. The presented technique is versatile enough to be used with any global region-based active contour energy and instill in it the benefits of localization. We describe this framework and demonstrate the localization of three well-known energies in order to illustrate how our framework can be applied to any energy. We then compare each localized energy to its global counterpart to show the improvements that can be achieved. Next, an in-depth study of the behaviors of these energies in response to the degree of localization is given. Finally, we show results on challenging images to illustrate the robust and accurate segmentations that are possible with this new class of active contour models.

## LOW-RESOURCE DELAYLESS SUBBAND ADAPTIVE FILTER USING WEIGHTED OVERLAP-ADD

A delayless structure targeted for low-resource implementation is proposed to eliminate filterbank processing delays in subband adaptive filters (SAFs). Rather than using direct IFFT or polyphase filterbanks to transform the SAFs back into the time-domain, the proposed method utilizes a weighted overlap-add (WOLA) synthesis. Low-resource real-time implementations are targeted and as such do not involve long (as long as the echo plant) FFT or IFFT operations. Also, the proposed approach facilitates time distribution of the adaptive filter reconstruction calculations crucial for efficient real-time and hardware implementation. The method is implemented on an oversampled WOLA filterbank employed as part of an echo cancellation application. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed implementation outperforms conventional SAF systems since the signals used in actual adaptive filtering are not distorted by filterbank aliasing. The method is a good match for partial update adaptive algorithms since segments of the time-domain adaptive filter are sequentially reconstructed and updated.

## OPTIMAL DESIGN OF DIGITAL EQUIVALENTS TO ANALOG FILTERS

The proposed optimal algorithm for the digitizing of analog filters is based on two existing filter design methods: the extended window design (EWD) and the matched–pole (MP) frequency sampling design. The latter is closely related to the filter design with iterative weighted least squares (WLS). The optimization is performed with an original MP design that yields an equiripple digitizing error. Then, a drastic reduction of the digitizing error is achieved through the introduction of a fractional time shift that minimizes the magnitude of the equiripple error within a given frequency interval. The optimal parameters thus obtained can be used to generate the EWD equations, together with a variable fractional delay output, as described in an earlier paper. Finally, in contrast to the WLS procedure, which relies on a “good guess” of the weighting function, the MP optimization is straightforward.

## A NEW PARALLEL IMPLEMENTATION FOR PARTICLE FILTERS AND ITS APPLICATION TO ADAPTIVE WAVEFORM DESIGN

Sequential Monte Carlo particle ﬁlters (PFs) are useful for estimating nonlinear non-Gaussian dynamic system parameters. As these algorithms are recursive, their real-time implementation can be computationally complex. In this paper, we analyze the bottlenecks in existing parallel PF algorithms, and we propose a new approach that integrates parallel PFs with independent Metropolis-Hastings (PPF-IMH) algorithms to improve root mean-squared estimation error performance. We implement the new PPF-IMH algorithm on a Xilinx Virtex-5 ﬁeld programmable gate array (FPGA) platform. For a onedimensional problem and using 1,000 particles, the PPF-IMH architecture with four processing elements utilizes less than 5% Virtex-5 FPGA resources and takes 5.85 μs for one iteration. The algorithm performance is also demonstrated when designing the waveform for an agile sensing application.

## A pole-zero placement technique for designing second-order IIR parametric equalizer filters

A new procedure is presented for designing second-order parametric equalizer filters. In contrast to the traditional approach, in which the design is based on a bilinear transform of an analog filter, the presented procedure allows for designing the filter directly in the digital domain. A rather intuitive technique known as pole-zero placement, is treated here in a quantitative way. It is shown that by making some meaningful approximations, a set of relatively simple design equations can be obtained. Design examples of both notch and resonance filters are included to illustrate the performance of the proposed method, and to compare with state-of-the-art solutions.

## Adaptive distributed noise reduction for speech enhancement in wireless acoustic sensor networks

An adaptive distributed noise reduction algorithm for speech enhancement is considered, which operates in a wireless acoustic sensor network where each node collects multiple microphone signals. In previous work, it was shown theoretically that for a stationary scenario, the algorithm provides the same signal estimators as the centralized multi-channel Wiener filter, while significantly compressing the data that is transmitted between the nodes. Here, we present simulation results of a fully adaptive implementation of the algorithm, in a non-stationary acoustic scenario with a moving speaker and two babble noise sources. The algorithm is implemented using a weighted overlap-add technique to reduce the overall input-output delay. It is demonstrated that good results can be obtained by estimating the required signal statistics with a long-term forgetting factor without downdating, even though the signal statistics change along with the iterative filter updates. It is also demonstrated that simultaneous node updating provides a significantly smoother and faster tracking performance compared to sequential node updating.

## EFFICIENT MAPPING OF ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS ON MULTI-PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES

Modern microprocessor technology is migrating from simply increasing clock speeds on a single processor to placing multiple processors on a die to increase throughput and power performance in every generation. To utilize the potential of such a system, signal processing algorithms have to be efficiently parallelized so that the load can be distributed evenly among the multiple processing units. In this paper, we study several advanced deterministic and stochastic signal processing algorithms and their computation using multiple processing units. Specifically, we consider two commonly used time-frequency signal representations, the short-time Fourier transform and the Wigner distribution, and we demonstrate their parallelization with low communication overhead. We also consider sequential Monte Carlo estimation techniques such as particle filtering, and we demonstrate that its multiple processor implementation requires large data exchanges and thus a high communication overhead. We propose a modified mapping scheme that reduces this overhead at the expense of a slight loss in accuracy, and we evaluate the performance of the scheme for a state estimation problem with respect to accuracy and scalability.

## Closing the gap: CPU and FPGA Trends in sustainable floating-point BLAS performance

Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have long been an attractive alternative to microprocessors for computing tasks — as long as floating-point arithmetic is not required. Fueled by the advance of Moore’s Law, FPGAs are rapidly reaching sufficient densities to enhance peak floating-point performance as well. The question, however, is how much of this peak performance can be sustained. This paper examines three of the basic linear algebra subroutine (BLAS) functions: vector dot product, matrix-vector multiply, and matrix multiply. A comparison of microprocessors, FPGAs, and Reconfigurable Computing platforms is performed for each operation. The analysis highlights the amount of memory bandwidth and internal storage needed to sustain peak performance with FPGAs. This analysis considers the historical context of the last six years and is extrapolated for the next six years.

## DSP Memory Management in a Third Generation High Performance Base Station

Most of the tasks in a mobile cellular network base station are performed with programmable digital signal processors. Their memory spaces and management features are very limited. The buffering requirements in the base station can have large instantaneous variations during the simultaneous transmission of burst' data on multiple channels to multiple users. In particular the high bit-rates of the Wideband Code Division Multiple Access data transfer evolution High Speed Downlink Packet Access create very high demands for buffering. The fragmentation of the buffer memory is a threat. It causes a gradual decrease in performance, which is critical in a long running process like the base station. The amount of fragmentation is different with different memory management methods. In this work the features and applicability of different memory management methods for signal processors used in the base stations of third generation cellular networks have been studied. Software based memory management includes a high amount of conditional branches. The signal processor, which is optimized for highly parallel sequential computing, executes conditional branches very badly when compared to microcontrollers and general-purpose processors. The memory management methods are first studied in theory and then experimentally. In the experiments two different memory management methods were analyzed. The memory managers were loaded with a synthetic workload program that simulates multi-user high bit-rate data transmissions in the base station. The performances of the memory managers were measured in terms of fragmentation, execution time and memory utilization. The experiments confirmed the information gained from the theoretical studies that different memory management methods are usually optimized for a certain feature. The experiments showed that a simple method is fast to execute and works well with small and intermediate loads. When the load is increased the performance decreases. The second, more complex, measured method was found to require more computing, but to be capable of using the memory space assigned to it more effectively.

## Auditory System for a Mobile Robot

The auditory system of living creatures provides useful information about the world, such as the location and interpretation of sound sources. For humans, it means to be able to focus one's attention on events, such as a phone ringing, a vehicle honking, a person taking, etc. For those who do not suffer from hearing impairments, it is hard to imagine a day without being able to hear, especially in a very dynamic and unpredictable world. Mobile robots would also benefit greatly from having auditory capabilities. In this thesis, we propose an artificial auditory system that gives a robot the ability to locate and track sounds, as well as to separate simultaneous sound sources and recognising simultaneous speech. We demonstrate that it is possible to implement these capabilities using an array of microphones, without trying to imitate the human auditory system. The sound source localisation and tracking algorithm uses a steered beamformer to locate sources, which are then tracked using a multi-source particle filter. Separation of simultaneous sound sources is achieved using a variant of the Geometric Source Separation (GSS) algorithm, combined with a multisource post-filter that further reduces noise, interference and reverberation. Speech recognition is performed on separated sources, either directly or by using Missing Feature Theory (MFT) to estimate the reliability of the speech features. The results obtained show that it is possible to track up to four simultaneous sound sources, even in noisy and reverberant environments. Real-time control of the robot following a sound source is also demonstrated. The sound source separation approach we propose is able to achieve a 13.7 dB improvement in signal-to-noise ratio compared to a single microphone when three speakers are present. In these conditions, the system demonstrates more than 80% accuracy on digit recognition, higher than most human listeners could obtain in our small case study when recognising only one of these sources. All these new capabilities will allow humans to interact more naturally with a mobile robot in real life settings.

## Fundamentals of the DFT (fft) Algorithms

In this article, a physical explanation of the fundamentals of the DFT (fft) algorithms is presented in terms of waveform decomposition. After reading the article and trying the examples, the reader is expected to gain a clear understanding of the basics of the mysterious DFT (fft) algorithms.

## Update To: A Wide-Notch Comb Filter

This article presents alternatives to the wide-notch comb filter described in Reference [1].

## Multirate Systems and Filter Banks

During the last two decades, multirate filter banks have found various applications in many different areas, such as speech coding, scrambling, adaptive signal processing, image compression, signal and image processing applications as well as transmission of several signals through the same channel. The main idea of using multirate filter banks is the ability of the system to separate in the frequency domain the signal under consideration into two or more signals or to compose two or more different signals into a single signal.

## Filter a Rectangular Pulse with no Ringing

To filter a rectangular pulse without any ringing, there is only one requirement on the filter coefficients: they must all be positive. However, if we want the leading and trailing edge of the pulse to be symmetrical, then the coefficients must be symmetrical. What we are describing is basically a window function.

## Implementing Simultaneous Digital Differentiation, Hilbert Transformation, and Half-Band Filtering

Recently I've been thinking about digital differentiator and Hilbert transformer implementations and I've developed a processing scheme that may be of interest to the readers here on dsprelated.com.

## Complex Down-Conversion Amplitude Loss

This article illustrates the signal amplitude loss inherent in a traditional complex down-conversion system. (In the literature of signal processing, complex down-conversion is also called "quadrature demodulation.")

## Introduction to Signal Processing

This book provides an applications-oriented introduction to digital signal processing written primarily for electrical engineering undergraduates. Practicing engineers and graduate students may also ﬁnd it useful as a ﬁrst text on the subject.