Real Time Implementation of Multi-Level Perfect Signal Reconstruction Filter Bank

Muhammad Amir Shafiq, Saqib Ejaz

Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is an efficient tool for signal and image processing applications which has been utilized for perfect signal reconstruction. In this paper, twenty seven optimum combinations of three different wavelet filter types, three different filter reconstruction levels and three different kinds of signal for multi-level perfect reconstruction filter bank were implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. All the filters for different wavelet types were designed using Filter Design Analysis (FDA) and Wavelet toolbox. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) was calculated for each combination. Combination with best SNR was then implemented on TMS320C6713 DSP kit. Real time testing of perfect reconstruction on DSP kit was then carried out by two different methods. Experimental results accede with theory and simulations.

A Multimedia DSP processor design

Vladimir Gnatyuk, Christian Runesson

This Master Thesis presents the design of the core of a fixed point general purpose multimedia DSP processor (MDSP) and its instruction set. This processor employs parallel processing techniques and specialized addressing models to speed up the processing of multimedia applications. The MDSP has a dual MAC structure with one enhanced MAC that provides a SIMD, Single Instruction Multiple Data, unit consisting of four parallel data paths that are optimized for accelerating multimedia applications. The SIMD unit performs four multimedia-oriented 16-bit operations every clock cycle. This accelerates computationally intensive procedures such as video and audio decoding. The MDSP uses a memory bank of four memories to provide multiple accesses of source data each clock cycle.

Implementation of Uncoordinated Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum using Software Defined Radios

Sasa Meskovic

One of the major threats to wireless communications is jamming. Many anti-jamming techniques have been presented in the past. However most of them are based on the precondition that the communicating devices have a pre-shared secret that can be used to synchronize the anti-jamming scheme. E.g. for frequency hopping the secret could be used to derive the hopping sequence and for direct sequence spread spectrum the secret is used to derive the spreading codes. But how can the devices bootstrap a jamming-resistant communication without having a pre-shared secret? Christina Popper and Mario Strasser propose as scheme for Uncoordinated Frequency Hopping (UFH) and Uncoordinated Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (UDSSS) in their papers [1] and [2] respectively. The goal of my project was an implementation of Uncoordinated Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (UDSSS) using Software De ned Radios. The First version should serve as an easy to use and extendable proof of conceptfor the proposed scheme.

Algorithms and tools for automatic generation of DSP hardware structures

Pedro Filipe Zeferino Tom´a

The increased complexity of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) algorithms demands for the development of more complex and more efficient hardware structures. The work presented herein describes the core components for the development of a tool capable of automatic generation of efficient hardware structures, therefore facilitating developers work. It comprises algorithms and techniques for i) balancing the paths in a graph, ii) scheduling of operations to functional units, iii) allocating registers and iv) generating the VHDL code. Results show that the developed techniques are capable of generating the hardware structure of typical DSP algorithms represented in data-flow graphs with over 2,000 nodes in around 200 ms, scaling to 80,000 nodes in about 214 s. Within the developed techniques, solving the scheduling problem is one of the most complex tasks: it is a NP-complete problem and directly influences the number of functional units and registers required. Therefore, experimental analysis was made on scheduling algorithms for time-constrained problems. Results show that simple list-based algorithms are more efficient in large problems than more complex algorithms: they run faster and tend to require less functional units.

Music Signal Processing

Saeed V. Vaseghi

Chapter 12 of the book "Multimedia Signal Processing: Theory and Applications in Speech, Music and Communications" - Musical Instruments - A Review of Basic Physics of Sound - Music Signal Features and Models - Ear: Hearing of Sounds - Psychoacoustics of Hearing - Music Compression - High Quality Music Coding: MPEG - Stereo Music - Music Recognition

High speed data collection with Blackfin DSP

Axel Alatalo

This report covers a master thesis in embedded systems, the goal of which was to investigate the high speed data collection capabilities with a Blackfin DSP. Basic theory about sampling and noise is covered briefly from a practical point of view. The theory is intended to be useful for those diving into a ADC datasheet for the first time. After an investigation of the delimiting factors, suitable components were selected and a prototype ADC PCB was designed from scratch. The goal is to design a general low noise data collecting unit compatible with the Blackfin DSP. Finally simple DSP software is designed to prove that DSP can handle such a high datastream.Testing the ADC card with the target Blackfin platform indicates thatthe analog parts indeed works. An analog bandwidth of over 10MHz ismeasured at a resolution exceeding 10 bits with respect to noise. The digital parts intended to interleave the two channels digital streams into one Blackfin unit did not work as intended. Only one channel is supported as of now. The report contains suggestions for future work in this area.

Active Noise Control of a Forest Machine Cabin

Mårten Hedborg, Patrik Grylin

Today, a high noise level is considered a problem in many working environments. The main reason is that it contributes to stress and fatigue. Traditional methods using passive noise control is only practicable for high frequencies. As a complement to passive noise control, active noise control (ANC) can be used to reduce low frequency noise. The main idea of ANC is to use destructive interference of waves to cancel disturbing noises. The purpose of this thesis is to design and implement an ANC system in the driver's cabin of a Valmet 890 forest machine. The engine boom is one of the most disturbing noises and therefore the main subjective for the ANC system to suppress. The ANC system is implemented on a Texas Instrument DSP development starter kit. Different FxLMS algorithms are evaluated with feedback and feedforward configurations. The results indicate that an ANC system significantly reduces the sound pressure level (SPL) in the cabin. Best performance of the evaluated systems is achieved for the feedforward FxLMS system. For a commonly used engine speed of 1500 rpm, the SPL is reduced with 17 dB. The results show fast enough convergence and global suppression of low frequency noise.

Evaluation of a Floating Point Acoustic Echo Canceller Implementation

Anders Dahlberg

This master thesis consists of implementation and evaluation of an AEC, Acoustic Echo Canceller, algorithm in a floating-point architecture. The most important question this thesis will try to answer is to determine benefits or drawbacks of using a floating-point architecture, relative a fixed-point architecture, to do AEC. In a telephony system there is two common forms of echo, line echo and acoustic echo. Acoustic echo is introduced by sound emanating from a loudspeaker, e.g. in a handsfree or speakerphone, being picked up by a microphone and then sent back to the source. The problem with this feedback is that the far-end speaker will hear one, or multiple, time-delayed version(s) of her own speech. This time-delayed version of speech is usually perceived as both confusing and annoying unless removed by the use of AEC. In this master thesis the performance of a floating-point version of a normalized least-mean-square AEC algorithm was evaluated in an environment designed and implemented to approximate live telephony calls. An instruction-set simulator and assembler available at the initiation of this master thesis were extended to enable; zero-overhead loops, modular addressing, post-increment of registers and register-write forwarding. With these improvements a bit-true assembly version was implemented capable of real-time AEC requiring 15 million instructions per second. A solution using as few as eight mantissa bits, in an external format used when storing data in memory, was found to have an insignificant effect on the selected AEC implementation’s performance. Due to the relatively low memory requirement of the selected AEC algorithm, the use of a small external format has a minor effect on the required memory size. In total this indicates that the possible reduction of the memory requirement and related energy consumption, does not justify the added complexity and energy consumption of using a floating-point architecture for the selected algorithm. Use of a floating-point format can still be advantageous in speech-related signal processing when the introduced time delay by a subband, or a similar frequency domain, solution is unacceptable. Speech algorithms that have high memory use and small introduced delay requirements are a good candidate for a floating-point digital signal processor architecture.

Decoding Ogg Vorbis Audio with The C6416 DSP, using a custom made MDCT core on FPGA

Henric Kärnhall

Ogg Vorbis is a fairly new and growing audio format, often used for online distribution of music and internet radio stations for streaming audio. It is considered to be better than MP3 in both quality and compression and in the same league as for example AAC. In contrast with many other formats, like MP3 and AAC, Ogg Vorbis is patent and royalty free. The purpose of this thesis project was to investigate how the C6416 DSP processor and a Stratix II FPGA could be connected to each other and work together as co-processors and using an Ogg Vorbis decoder as implementation example. A fixed-point decoder called Tremor (developed by Xiph.Org the creator of the Vorbis I specification), has been ported to the DSP processor and an Ogg Vorbis player has been developed. Tremor was profiled before performing the software / hardware partitioning to decide what parts of the source code of Tremor that should be implemented in the FPGA to off-load and accelerate the DSP.

Development of a real time test platform for motor drive algorithms

Viktor Larsson

In this thesis a real time test platform for a permanent magnet synchronous motor is developed. The implemented algorithm is Field Oriented Control (FOC) and it is implemented on a Texas Instruments TMS320F2808 Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The platform is developed in a rapid prototyping approach using Matlab/Simulink and the Real Time Workshop (RTW) packages.With this software the control algorithm and its interface to different DSP modules, such as A/D converter and PWM module, is constructed as a Simulink block scheme. The blocks used come from ordinary Simulink libraries and libraries provided by the RTW packages. From the Simulink block scheme Matlab can auto generate embedded C code adapted for different embedded targets, in this case the 2808 DSP.The developed real time test platform is also a Simulink model, though different from the algorithm model. When the start simulation command is given in the platform model a Graphical User Interface is loaded which lets the user specify motor parameters and certain algorithm parameters. Once the parameters are chosen RTW generates code from the algorithm model, loads it into the DSP and runs the generated program. From the platform model it is possible to set the reference speed of the motor in real time and monitor/log motor parameters such as actual speed and stator currents.