## Simple Discrete-Time Modeling of Lossy LC Filters

There are many software applications that allow modeling LC filters in the frequency domain. But sometimes it is useful to have a time domain model, such as when you need to analyze a mixed analog and DSP system. For example, the...

## The Discrete Fourier Transform as a Frequency Response

The discrete frequency response H(k) of a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter is the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of its impulse response h(n) [1]. So, if we can find H(k) by whatever method, it should be identical to the DFT of...

## Simple Concepts Explained: Fixed-Point

IntroductionMost signal processing intensive applications on FPGA are still implemented relying on integer or fixed-point arithmetic. It is not easy to find the key ideas on quantization, fixed-point and integer arithmetic. In a series of...

## Overview of my Articles

Introduction This article is a summary of all the articles I've written here at DspRelated. The main focus has always been an increased understanding of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The references are grouped by topic and ordered in...

## Add the Hilbert Transformer to Your DSP Toolkit, Part 2

In this part, I’ll show how to design a Hilbert Transformer using the coefficients of a half-band filter as a starting point, which turns out to be remarkably simple. I’ll also show how a half-band filter can be synthesized using the...

## Add the Hilbert Transformer to Your DSP Toolkit, Part 1

In some previous articles, I made use of the Hilbert transformer, but did not explain its theory in any detail. In this article, I’ll dig a little deeper into how the Hilbert Transformer works. Understanding the Hilbert Transformer...

## Candan's Tweaks of Jacobsen's Frequency Approximation

Introduction This is an article to hopefully give a better understanding of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) by explaining how a tweak to a well known frequency approximation formula makes it better, and another tweak makes it exact. The...

## A Recipe for a Basic Trigonometry Table

Introduction This is an article that is give a better understanding to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) by showing how to build a Sine and Cosine table from scratch. Along the way a recursive method is developed as a tone generator for a...

## A New Contender in the Quadrature Oscillator Race

There have been times when I wanted to determine the z-domain transfer function of some discrete network, but my algebra skills failed me. Some time ago I learned Mason's Rule, which helped me solve my problems. If you're willing to learn the...

## Filtering Noise: The Basics (Part 1)

IntroductionFinding signals in the presence of noise is one of the fundamental quests of the discipline of signal processing. Noise is inherently random by nature, so a probability oriented approach is needed to develop a mathematical framework...

## Handling Spectral Inversion in Baseband Processing

The problem of "spectral inversion" comes up fairly frequently in the context of signal processing for communication systems. In short, "spectral inversion" is the reversal of the orientation of the signal bandwidth with...

## 5G NR QC-LDPC Encoding Algorithm

3GPP 5G has been focused on structured LDPC codes known as quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes, which exhibit advantages over other types of LDPC codes with respect to the hardware implementations of encoding and decoding using...

## An Efficient Linear Interpolation Scheme

This article presents a computationally-efficient linear interpolation trick that requires at most one multiply per output sample.

## Phase or Frequency Shifter Using a Hilbert Transformer

In this article, we'll describe how to use a Hilbert transformer to make a phase shifter or frequency shifter. In either case, the input is a real signal and the output is a real signal. We'll use some simple Matlab code to simulate these systems. After that, we'll go into a little more detail on Hilbert transformer theory and design.

## Understanding and Implementing the Sliding DFT

Introduction In many applications the detection or processing of signals in the frequency domain offers an advantage over performing the same task in the time-domain. Sometimes the advantage is just a simpler or more conceptually...

## The Power Spectrum

Often, when calculating the spectrum of a sampled signal, we are interested in relative powers, and we don't care about the absolute accuracy of the y axis. However, when the sampled signal represents an analog signal, we sometimes need an accurate picture of the analog signal's power in the frequency domain. This post shows how to calculate an accurate power spectrum.

## Modeling Anti-Alias Filters

Digitizing a signal using an Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) usually requires an anti-alias filter, as shown in Figure 1a. In this post, we’ll develop models of lowpass Butterworth and Chebyshev anti-alias filters, and compute the time...

## Polyphase Filters and Filterbanks

ALONG CAME POLY Polyphase filtering is a computationally efficient structure for applying resampling and filtering to a signal. Most digital filters can be applied in a polyphase format, and it is also possible to create efficient resampling...

## Linear-phase DC Removal Filter

This blog describes several DC removal networks that might be of interest to the dsprelated.com readers. Back in August 2007 there was a thread on the comp.dsp newsgroup concerning the process of removing the DC (zero Hz) component from a...