## The Zeroing Sine Family of Window Functions

Introduction This is an article to hopefully give a better understanding of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) by introducing a class of well behaved window functions that the author believes to be previously unrecognized. The definition...

## Design Square-Root Nyquist Filters

In his book on multirate signal processing, harris presents a nifty technique for designing square-root Nyquist FIR filters with good stopband attenuation [1]. In this post, I describe the method and provide a Matlab function for designing the filters. You can find a Matlab function by harris for designing the filters at [2].

## Make Hardware Great Again

By now you're aware of the collective angst in the US about 5G. Why is the US not a leader in 5G ? Could that also happen -- indeed, is it happening -- in AI ? If we lead in other areas, why not 5G ? What makes it so hard ? This...

## A Fast Real-Time Trapezoidal Rule Integrator

This article presents a computationally-efficient network for computing real?time discrete integration using the Trapezoidal Rule.

## Third-Order Distortion of a Digitally-Modulated Signal

Analog designers are always harping about amplifier third-order distortion. Why? In this article, we'll look at why third-order distortion is important, and simulate a QAM signal with third order distortion.

## A Narrow Bandpass Filter in Octave or Matlab

The design of a very narrow bandpass FIR filter, coded in either Octave or Matlab, can prove challenging if a computationally-efficient filter is required. This is especially true if the sampling rate is high relative to the filter's center...

## IIR Bandpass Filters Using Cascaded Biquads

In an earlier post [1], we implemented lowpass IIR filters using a cascade of second-order IIR filters, or biquads. This post provides a Matlab function to do the same for Butterworth bandpass IIR filters. Compared to conventional implementations, bandpass filters based on biquads are less sensitive to coefficient quantization [2]. This becomes important when designing narrowband filters.

## Second Order Discrete-Time System Demonstration

Discrete-time systems are remarkable: the time response can be computed from mere difference equations, and the coefficients ai, bi of these equations are also the coefficients of H(z). Here, I try to illustrate this remarkableness by converting a continuous-time second-order system to an approximately equivalent discrete-time system. With a discrete-time model, we can then easily compute the time response to any input. But note that the goal here is as much to understand the discrete-time model as it is to find the response.

## A Beginner's Guide To Cascaded Integrator-Comb (CIC) Filters

This article discusses the behavior, mathematics, and implementation of cascaded integrator-comb filters.

## The correct answer to the quiz of @apolin

The correct answer to the @apolin quiz can be easily explained using the following Simulink model: In MATLAB you have to initialize the two filters: h = dftmtx (8); h1 = h (3, :); % The filter of the quiz h2 = h (7, :); % The...

## Design Square-Root Nyquist Filters

In his book on multirate signal processing, harris presents a nifty technique for designing square-root Nyquist FIR filters with good stopband attenuation [1]. In this post, I describe the method and provide a Matlab function for designing the filters. You can find a Matlab function by harris for designing the filters at [2].

## Understanding and Implementing the Sliding DFT

Introduction In many applications the detection or processing of signals in the frequency domain offers an advantage over performing the same task in the time-domain. Sometimes the advantage is just a simpler or more conceptually...

## The Discrete Fourier Transform and the Need for Window Functions

The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is used to find the frequency spectrum of a discrete-time signal. A computationally efficient version called the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is normally used to calculate the DFT. But, as many...

## Frequency Dependence in Free Space Propagation

IntroductionIt seems to be fairly common knowledge, even among practicing professionals, that the efficiency of propagation of wireless signals is frequency dependent. Generally it is believed that lower frequencies are desirable since pathloss...

## Four Ways to Compute an Inverse FFT Using the Forward FFT Algorithm

If you need to compute inverse fast Fourier transforms (inverse FFTs) but you only have forward FFT software (or forward FFT FPGA cores) available to you, below are four ways to solve your problem. Preliminaries To define what we're...

## ADC Clock Jitter Model, Part 2 – Random Jitter

In Part 1, I presented a Matlab function to model an ADC with jitter on the sample clock, and applied it to examples with deterministic jitter. Now we’ll investigate an ADC with random clock jitter, by using a filtered or unfiltered...

## Linear-phase DC Removal Filter

This blog describes several DC removal networks that might be of interest to the dsprelated.com readers. Back in August 2007 there was a thread on the comp.dsp newsgroup concerning the process of removing the DC (zero Hz) component from a...

## Learn About Transmission Lines Using a Discrete-Time Model

We don’t often think about signal transmission lines, but we use them every day. Familiar examples are coaxial cable, Ethernet cable, and Universal Serial Bus (USB). Like it or not, high-speed clock and signal traces on...

## Setting Carrier to Noise Ratio in Simulations

When simulating digital receivers, we often want to check performance with added Gaussian noise. In this article, I’ll derive the simple equations for the rms noise level needed to produce a desired carrier to noise ratio (CNR or...

## Third-Order Distortion of a Digitally-Modulated Signal

Analog designers are always harping about amplifier third-order distortion. Why? In this article, we'll look at why third-order distortion is important, and simulate a QAM signal with third order distortion.