Digital Waveguide FiltersA Digital Waveguide Filter (DWF) can be defined as any digital filter built by stringing together digital waveguides.C.7 In the case of a cascade combination of unit-length waveguide sections, they are essentially the same as microwave filters  and unit element filters  (Appendix F). This section shows how DWFs constructed as a cascade chain of waveguide sections, and reflectively terminated, can be transformed via elementary manipulations to well known ladder and lattice digital filters, such as those used in speech modeling [297,363].
DWFs may be derived conceptually by sampling the unidirectional traveling waves in a system of ideal, lossless waveguides. Sampling is across time and space. Thus, variables in a DWF structure are equal exactly (at the sampling times and positions, to within numerical precision) to variables propagating in the physical medium in an interconnection of uniform 1D waveguides.
Ladder Waveguide FiltersAn important class of DWFs can be constructed as a linear cascade chain of digital waveguide sections, as shown in Fig.C.24 (a slightly abstracted version of Fig.C.19). Each block labeled stands for a state-less Kelly-Lochbaum scattering junction (§C.8.4) interfacing between wave impedances and . We call this a ladder waveguide filter structure. It is an exact bandlimited discrete-time model of a sequence of wave impedances , as used in the Kelly-Lochbaum piecewise-cylindrical acoustic-tube model for the vocal tract in the context of voice synthesis (Fig.6.2). The delays between scattering junctions along both the top and bottom signal paths make it possible to compute all of the scattering junctions in parallel--a property that is becoming increasingly valuable in signal-processing architectures. figure[htbp] To transform the DWF of Fig.C.24 to a conventional ladder digital filter structure, as used in speech modeling [297,363], we need to (1) terminate on the right with a pure reflection and (2) eliminate the delays along the top signal path. We will do this in stages so as to point out a valuable intermediate case.
Reflectively Terminated Waveguide FiltersA reflecting termination occurs when the wave impedance of the next section is either zero or infinity (§C.8.1). Since Fig.C.24 is labeled for force waves, an infinite terminating impedance on the right results in
Half-Rate Ladder Waveguide FiltersThe delays preceding the two inputs to each scattering junction can be ``pushed'' into the junction and then ``pulled'' out to the outputs and combine with the delays there. (This is easy to show using the Kelly-Lochbaum scattering junction derived in §C.8.4.) By performing this operation on every other section in the DWF chain, the half-rate ladder waveguide filter shown in Fig.C.25 is obtained . figure[htbp] This ``half-rate'' ladder DWF is so-called because its sampling rate can be cut in half due to each delay being two-samples long. It has advantages worth considering, which will become clear after we have derived conventional ladder digital filters below. Note that now pairs of scattering junctions can be computed in parallel, and an exact physical interpretation remains. That is, it can still be used as a general purpose physical modeling building block in this more efficient (half-rate) form. Note that when the sampling rate is halved, the physical wave variables (computed by summing two traveling-wave components) are at the same time only every other spatial sample. In particular, the physical transverse forces on the right side of scattering junctions and in Fig.C.25 are
Conventional Ladder FiltersGiven a reflecting termination on the right, the half-rate DWF chain of Fig.C.25 can be reduced further to the conventional ladder/lattice filter structure shown in Fig.C.26. figure[htbp] To make a standard ladder/lattice filter, the sampling rate is cut in half (i.e., replace by ), and the scattering junctions are typically implemented in one-multiply form (§C.8.5) or normalized form (§C.8.6), etc. Conventionally, if the graph of the scattering junction is nonplanar, as it is for the one-multiply junction, the filter is called a lattice filter; it is called a ladder filter when the graph is planar, as it is for normalized and Kelly-Lochbaum scattering junctions. For all-pole transfer functions , the Durbin recursion can be used to compute the reflection coefficients from the desired transfer-function denominator polynomial coefficients . To implement arbitrary transfer-function zeros, a linear combination of delay-element outputs is formed using weights that are called ``tap parameters'' [173,297]. To create Fig.C.26 from Fig.C.24, all delays along the top rail are pushed to the right until they have all been worked around to the bottom rail. In the end, each bottom-rail delay becomes seconds instead of seconds. Such an operation is possible because of the termination at the right by an infinite (or zero) wave impedance. Note that there is a progressive one-sample time advance from section to section. The time skews for the right-going (or left-going) traveling waves can be determined simply by considering how many missing (or extra) delays there are between that signal and the unshifted signals at the far left. Due to the reflecting termination, conventional lattice filters cannot be extended to the right in any physically meaningful way. Also, creating network topologies more complex than a simple linear cascade (or acyclic tree) of waveguide sections is not immediately possible because of the delay-free path along the top rail. In particular, the output cannot be fed back to the input . Nevertheless, as we have derived, there is an exact physical interpretation (with time skew) for the conventional ladder/lattice digital filter.
Power-Normalized Waveguide FiltersAbove, we adopted the convention that the time variation of the wave impedance did not alter the traveling force waves . In this case, the power represented by a traveling force wave is modulated by the changing wave impedance as it propagates. The signal power becomes inversely proportional to wave impedance:
- The normalized waveguide scheme compensates for power modulation by scaling the signals leaving the delays so as to give them the same power coming out as they had going in. It requires two additional scaling multipliers per waveguide junction.
- The normalized wave approach  propagates rms-normalized waves in the waveguide. In this case, each delay-line contains and . In this case, the power stored in the delays does not change when the wave impedance changes. This is the basis of the normalized ladder filter (NLF) [174,297]. Unfortunately, four multiplications are obtained at each scattering junction.
- The transformer-normalized waveguide approach changes the wave impedance at the output of the delay back to what it was at the time it entered the delay using a ``transformer'' (defined in §C.16).
``Traveling Waves'' in Lumped Systems
Scattering at Impedance Changes