Computing FFT Twiddle Factors

Rick Lyons August 8, 201019 comments

Some days ago I read a post on the comp.dsp newsgroup and, if I understood the poster's words, it seemed that the poster would benefit from knowing how to compute the twiddle factors of a radix-2 fast Fourier transform (FFT).

Then, later it occurred to me that it might be useful for this blog's readers to be aware of algorithms for computing FFT twiddle factors. So,... what follows are two algorithms showing how to compute the individual twiddle factors of an N-point decimation-in-frequency...


Computing an FFT of Complex-Valued Data Using a Real-Only FFT Algorithm

Rick Lyons February 9, 20103 comments

Someone recently asked me if I knew of a way to compute a fast Fourier transform (FFT) of complex-valued input samples using an FFT algorithm that accepts only real-valued input data. Knowing of no way to do this, I rifled through my library of hardcopy FFT articles looking for help. I found nothing useful that could be applied to this problem.

After some thinking, I believe I have a solution to this problem. Here is my idea:

Let's say our original input data is the complex-valued sequence...


Some Thoughts on a German Mathematician

Rick Lyons January 11, 20106 comments

Carl Friedrich Gauss

Here are a few interesting facts about the great Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), considered by some historians to have been the world's greatest mathematician. The overused phrase of "genius" could, with full justification, be used to describe this man. (How many people do you know that could have discovered the law of quadratic reciprocity in number theory at the age seventeen years?) Gauss was so prolific that by some estimates he personally doubled the amount of...


Using Mason's Rule to Analyze DSP Networks

Rick Lyons August 31, 20096 comments

There have been times when I wanted to determine the z-domain transfer function of some discrete network, but my algebra skills failed me. Some time ago I learned Mason's Rule, which helped me solve my problems. If you're willing to learn the steps in using Mason's Rule, it has the power of George Foreman's right hand in solving network analysis problems.

This blog discusses a valuable analysis method (well known to our analog control system engineering brethren) to obtain the z-domain...


Simultaneously Computing a Forward FFT and an Inverse FFT Using a Single FFT

Rick Lyons January 13, 20095 comments

Most of us are familiar with the processes of using a single N-point complex FFT to: (1) perform a 2N-point FFT on real data, and (2) perform two independent N-point FFTs on real data [1–5]. In case it's of interest to someone out there, this blog gives the algorithm for simultaneously computing a forward FFT and an inverse FFT using a single radix-2 FFT.

Our algorithm is depicted by the seven steps, S1 through S7, shown in Figure 1. In that figure, we compute the x(n) inverse FFT of...


Multiplierless Exponential Averaging

Rick Lyons December 5, 200811 comments

This blog discusses an interesting approach to exponential averaging. To begin my story, a traditional exponential averager (also called a "leaky integrator"), shown in Figure 1(a), is commonly used to reduce noise fluctuations that contaminate relatively constant-amplitude signal measurements.

Figure 1 Exponential averaging: (a) standard network; (b) single-multiply network.

That exponential averager's difference equation is

y(n) = αx(n) + (1 –...

Free DSP Books on the Internet - Part Deux

Rick Lyons December 4, 20081 comment

Since Stephane Boucher posted my "Free DSP Books on the Internet" blog here in February 2008, I have learned of additional books on the Internet that are related to signal processing. I list those books below. Again, the listed books are copyrighted. The books' copyright holders have graciously provided their books free of charge for downloading for individual use, but multiple copies must not be made or printed. As such, be aware that using any of these books as promotional material is...


Computing the Group Delay of a Filter

Rick Lyons November 19, 200817 comments

I just learned a new method (new to me at least) for computing the group delay of digital filters. In the event this process turns out to be interesting to my readers, this blog describes the method. Let's start with a bit of algebra so that you'll know I'm not making all of this up.

Assume we have the N-sample h(n) impulse response of a digital filter, with n being our time-domain index, and that we represent the filter's discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), H(ω), in polar form...


Computing Large DFTs Using Small FFTs

Rick Lyons June 23, 200821 comments

It is possible to compute N-point discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs) using radix-2 fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) whose sizes are less than N. For example, let's say the largest size FFT software routine you have available is a 1024-point FFT. With the following trick you can combine the results of multiple 1024-point FFTs to compute DFTs whose sizes are greater than 1024.

The simplest form of this idea is computing an N-point DFT using two N/2-point FFT operations. Here's how the trick...


Linear-phase DC Removal Filter

Rick Lyons March 30, 200825 comments

This blog describes several DC removal networks that might be of interest to the dsprelated.com readers.

Back in August 2007 there was a thread on the comp.dsp newsgroup concerning the process of removing the DC (zero Hz) component from a time-domain sequence [1]. Discussed in that thread was the notion of removing a signal's DC bias by subtracting the signal's moving average from that signal, as shown in Figure 1(a).

Figure 1.

At first I thought...


Somewhat Off Topic: Deciphering Transistor Terminology

Rick Lyons May 28, 20193 comments

I recently learned something mildly interesting about transistors, so I thought I'd share my new knowledge with you folks. Figure 1 shows a p-n-p transistor comprising a small block of n-type semiconductor sandwiched between two blocks of p-type semiconductor.

The terminology of "emitter" and "collector" seems appropriate, but did you ever wonder why the semiconductor block in the center is called the "base"? The word base seems inappropriate because the definition of the word base is:...


A Complex Variable Detective Story – A Disconnect Between Theory and Implementation

Rick Lyons October 14, 2014

Recently I was in the middle of a pencil-and-paper analysis of a digital 5-tap FIR filter having complex-valued coefficients and I encountered a surprising and thought-provoking problem. So that you can avoid the algebra difficulty I encountered, please read on.

A Surprising Algebra Puzzle

I wanted to derive the H(ω) equation for the frequency response of my FIR digital filter whose complex coefficients were h0, h1, h2, h3, and h4. I could then test the validity of my H(ω)...


60-Hz Noise and Baseline Drift Reduction in ECG Signal Processing

Rick Lyons January 23, 20216 comments

Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are obtained by monitoring the electrical activity of the human heart for medical diagnostic purposes [1]. This blog describes a very efficient digital filter used to reduce both 60 Hz AC power line noise and unwanted signal baseline drift that often contaminate ECG signals.

PDF_HERE

We'll first describe the ECG noise reduction filter and then examine the filter's performance in a real-world ECG signal filtering example.Proposed ECG Noise Reduction Digital...


The Risk In Using Frequency Domain Curves To Evaluate Digital Integrator Performance

Rick Lyons September 24, 201931 comments

This blog shows the danger in evaluating the performance of a digital integration network based solely on its frequency response curve. If you plan on implementing a digital integrator in your signal processing work I recommend you continue reading this blog.

Background

Typically when DSP practitioners want to predict the accuracy performance of a digital integrator they compare how closely that integrator's frequency response matches the frequency response of an ideal integrator [1,2]....


An Efficient Full-Band Sliding DFT Spectrum Analyzer

Rick Lyons April 1, 20215 comments

In this blog I present two computationally efficient full-band discrete Fourier transform (DFT) networks that compute the 0th bin and all the positive-frequency bin outputs for an N-point DFT in real-time on a sample-by-sample basis.

An Even-N Spectrum Analyzer

The full-band sliding DFT (SDFT) spectrum analyzer network, where the DFT size N is an even integer, is shown in Figure 1(a). The x[n] input sequence is restricted to be real-only valued samples. Notice that the only real parts of...


A Wide-Notch Comb Filter

Rick Lyons November 24, 201918 comments

This blog describes a linear-phase comb filter having wider stopband notches than a traditional comb filter.

Background

Let's first review the behavior of a traditional comb filter. Figure 1(a) shows a traditional comb filter comprising two cascaded recursive running sum (RRS) comb filters. Figure 1(b) shows the filter's co-located dual poles and dual zeros on the z-plane, while Figure 1(c) shows the filter's positive-frequency magnitude response when, for example, D = 9. The...

Free DSP Books on the Internet - Part Deux

Rick Lyons December 4, 20081 comment

Since Stephane Boucher posted my "Free DSP Books on the Internet" blog here in February 2008, I have learned of additional books on the Internet that are related to signal processing. I list those books below. Again, the listed books are copyrighted. The books' copyright holders have graciously provided their books free of charge for downloading for individual use, but multiple copies must not be made or printed. As such, be aware that using any of these books as promotional material is...


A Simpler Goertzel Algorithm

Rick Lyons February 4, 20212 comments

In this blog I propose a Goertzel algorithm that is simpler than the version of the Goertzel algorithm that is traditionally presented DSP textbooks. Below I very briefly describe the DSP textbook version of the Goertzel algorithm followed by a description of my proposed simpler algorithm.

The Traditional DSP Textbook Goertzel Algorithm

The so-called Goertzel algorithm is used to efficiently compute a single mth-bin sample of an N-point discrete Fourier transform (DFT) [1-4]. The...


Looking For a Second Toolbox? This One's For Sale

Rick Lyons June 29, 2017
In case you're looking for a second toolbox, this used toolbox is for sale.

The blue-enameled steel toolbox measures 13 x 7 x 5 inches and, when opened, has a three-section tray attached to the lid. Showing signs of heavy use, the interior, tray, and exterior have collected a fair amount of dirt and grease and bear many scratches. The bottom of the box is worn from having been slid on rough surfaces. 

The toolbox currently resides in Italy. But don't worry, it can be shipped to you....


The Real Star of Star Trek

Rick Lyons September 25, 20168 comments

Unless you've been living under a rock recently, you're probably aware that this month is the 50-year anniversary of the original Star Trek show on American television. It's an anniversary worth noting, as did Time and Newsweek magazines with their special editions.

   

Over the years I've come to realize that a major star of the original Star Trek series wasn't an actor. It was a thing. The starship USS Enterprise! Before I explain my thinking, here's a little...